Saturday, August 31, 2019
Heroes What is a hero? Usually people think of heroes as people who fight crime in movies or comic books, but those people don't exist in the real world. I think a hero is an everyday person that can change the world. Someone that inspires or helps you. My hero isn't an actor, a singer or even a dancer. In fact he's never been on TV or on the radio! But, those things aren't what make people hero's it's what's inside that counts. My hero is strong yet gentle, honest, trustworthy and loving. My hero knows Just what to say when I'm feeling sad. My hero is my dad.Your probably thinking Ã¢â¬Å"well that's a stupid heroÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"there's nothing special about a nobodyÃ¢â¬ , but my dad IS SPECIAL, and not because he is my dad, but because he is the most trustworthy person I know, and not only that he is generous, kind and filled with love. At the age of two, I learned how to sing Ã¢â¬Å"Twinkle, twinkle little starÃ¢â¬ , count from 1 to 10, memorize A to Z, and many more. He neve r fails to teach me good values and have faith with God. He has helped my family and me to succeed at anything we do because he believes in us and supports us.He never puts himself before anyone else. My dad is my protector, mentor, and my trainer. Working hard to provide all my needs, protecting me every time, and guiding me as I grow up. He's my best teacher! Overall, my dad is amazing and I can call my dad as one of the Ã¢â¬Å"best dads in the worldÃ¢â¬ and that makes him my SUPERHERO. Now look at your hero's and think about what makes them a hero, not that there good at sport or always on the TV, but look inside their hearts and then decide if there truly hero's at all. Heroes: Twinkle Little Star and Hero By theavanwyk9133
Friday, August 30, 2019
Without hunting we would all be dead. Our ancestors needed to hunt for food and clothing. Hunting is very important to our human history. Today hunting is not as significant to some people, the populaces who hunt these days hunt for food or they hunt for a hobby. To hunt successfully, you need patience, the equipment and skill. Patience is one of the key ingredients to a good hunt. One of the hardest things to do for me is being patience because half of the time you are sitting (or standing) in one spot looking for the animal and if you see the animal you got to debate whether you want it or to look for a better animal. If it is not in a good position you got to wait for it to move to get a good shot. Having patience is one of the best things to have when hunting. Having the right equipment when hunting is like going to school with a pencil it is common sense. The weapon is the most important so you can get the animal, but you need different weapons for different animals like 22. is good for hunting grouse, not for hunting a moose. Clothing is second; you do not want to go hunting in a T-shirt and jeans there is clothing made just for hunting. The right gear is vital to a successfully hunt. Skill is everything you need to be a great hunter. First a skilled hunter would know how to find the animal, where it lives. Second you need to be a good shot because you do not want to miss the animal then it would get scared and run away. Also you do not want to shot the animal more than once because the meat would get ruined. Skill is all you need to have a good hunt. Hunting is a way of life and a hobby to some. People have been hunting throughout the ages and are still hunting today.
Thursday, August 29, 2019
I disagree that budgeting is an unnecessary burden on many managers to a large extent. This isbecause budgeting provides an opportunity to reevaluate existing activities and evaluate new ones. Compel managers to think ahead and estimates of unit and sales during operating period as well as selling expenses, so as to estimate the profit target. Once the budget is set, region, product groups and/or account types can break it down. Also, budgeting talks about the optimum profitability in a given period; since firms typically look for profit maximization in the long term; while it seeks sales maximization in the current period. By providing and opportunity to reevaluate existing activities and evaluate new ones, managers are able to get a further understanding of the sales, production, distribution and finance on their current activities. Hence with the above that they have found out they are able to enhance and create new ones. In additional, budgeting compel managers to think ahead as they have to consider factors when forecasting sales. This factors include: past patterns of sales, market research studies, advertising and sales promotion plans, competitorsÃ¢â¬â¢ actions and general economics conditions. While considering these factors, managers will have to do a research studies on the past and present and make a comparison on these and estimate sales in the future. In order for a company to have a good budgeting or performance, manager will need to foresee what will happen in the future and engages itÃ¢â¬â¢s staffs on the budget processing, creating and environment where there is a true two-way flow of information. Example from the top down, the top management gives sales and profit targets to various organization units and unit heads make plans to achieve the objectives. From the bottom up, Unit heads and their subordinates team up in the setting of the sales and profit objectives and also plan to meet them. As from the example above, top management is away from the realities in the field; but at the same time, juniors may tend to understate what they can achieve in the period. However, budgeting takes up too much time of all managers. As they have to stay focus on their current project and to make sure that is an active participation of all the employees. Reason why the failed to budget can be due to an error in the message conveyed by the budgeting system that maybe misaligned with incentives provided by the compensation system as budgeting is a detailed and comprehensive analysis upon any miscommunications it may result in more time spend by the managers. In conclusion, I do disagree to a large extent that budgeting is an unnecessary burden on many managers as they can provide good analysis while ensuring of all participation of the management be it the employees all the managers despite the risk.
Evaluate the validity of the reasons given by Thomas Moore for his condemnation of William Tyndale's english translation of the New Testament - Essay Example translation survived, since they were all burnt, nevertheless the New Testament translations in English as we know it today are largely the fruit of the work of William Tyndale. However, this same work was not well received in his time, largely due to the strict beliefs of the Catholic church, and this was also the grounds for the conflict in the views of Thomas Moore and William Tyndale. The major reasons for MooreÃ¢â¬â¢s condemnation of TyndaleÃ¢â¬â¢s work may be listed as follows: (a) faulty translation of certain words which provided scope for distortion of the scriptural message (b) the notion that such faulty translation made Tyndale a hypocrite and a dangerous heretic (c) the fact that Tyndale supported the King of England as the Head of the Church, thereby seriously undermining the established hierarchy of the Roman Catholic Church, of which the Pope was the leader. This further substantiated MooreÃ¢â¬â¢s condemnation of Tyndale as a man rebelling against the Catholic c hurch. The Catholics believed in the Pope as being the head of the Church and Thomas Moore was a staunch Catholic who believed that it was indeed the Pope who had the right to be hailed as the Head of the Church. However, Tyndale offered a different view on this, that it was actually the Monarch of England who was the head of the Church, since in those days Henry VIII was the ruling head of England. Tyndale approved of the Monarch as being the Head of the Church, so long as that Monarch obeyed God. The brunt of TyndaleÃ¢â¬â¢s ire was expended against the corrupt church practices that existed in the Catholic church at the time and he was intent upon bringing the contents of the New testament to the attention of the lay people. The only means to do this was to translate the original Latin and Hebrew of the New Testament into simple English so that the masses among the English public would also be able to understand it. This was also in accordance with the encouragement that Tyndale provided to the
Wednesday, August 28, 2019
Trend - Retro Fashion - Essay Example The essay "Trend Essay - Retro Fashion" focuses on the retro fashion. Even famous makers of athletic footwear have begun to produce new lines of Ã¢â¬ËretroÃ¢â¬â¢ shoes. Anyone who doubts the existing of a retro trend needs to simply visit the internet or pick up a fashion magazine. There are plenty of YouTube videos on how to get the look of a particular decade. The term is used in many articles on how to mix new with old garments from the past. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s not just the styles that are desirable; but the colors as well. Hot pink has definitely made a comeback. Polka dots from the 60Ã¢â¬â¢s have found their way back into fashion today. Not only are they found in garments, but also in home decor, such as on pillows and bedding. Retro is a distinctive style that is sometimes classified along with the Ã¢â¬ËvintageÃ¢â¬â¢ styles. However, it is unique, in that it does not necessarily imply age or an aged look. Vintage, on the other hand, does imply something that is aged. Most pe ople think of vintage as a look coming from the 1920Ã¢â¬â¢s through the depression era. Retro is what comes after that period. Though some people tend to mix the terms, Retro has a distinct place in time that it resembles. It represents an era in fashion that influenced garment design, furniture and an overall style. A retro look is not limited to fashion. Brown, et al talk about the term applied to the marketing of products, suggesting it is a trend that reinvents something from a past decade, with a new twist. They give the example of the Volkswagen Beetle.
Tuesday, August 27, 2019
Palmistry - Essay Example Notable people such as Paracelsus (1493-1541) and Fludd (1574-1637) brought respectability to palmistry through their writings. Later Dr. Carl Carus, physician to the king of Saxony in the 19th century matched palms to personality. Advances in genetics, psychology and forensics have propelled palmistry into the modern age. In 1901 Scotland yard adopted the technique of fingerprinting in criminal investigation and identification. Medical researchers studying skin patterns (dermatoglyphics), have discovered a correspondence between genetic abnormalities and unusual markings in the hand (Paralumun, ). Today, palmistry is recognized in every corner of the world. Do you like uncertainty Most people would definitely answer "NO." Every one of us, I believe, would like the feeling of security. Whether it be the amount of money that you have in your bank account, the job you have at present, the cozy place that you live in or the plans you have set to achieve your goal-anything or anyone that you think would provide you "a happy ever after." You will look for alternatives if you think that your choice in a given situation would do more harm than good. You may evaluate your previous actions, see what you have done that might have caused or will cause the predicaments, and identify corrective measures. You may even consult other people whom you think could provide you with answers in an instant. There are personal characteristics that, to some extent, will prompt you from choosing a particular action though. It does not apply that if an action (like choosing a particular job, people that you would be attracted to and vice versa, moods that you would have at a particular instance) is universally accepted will also work for you. Some says it is in the genes; others, like palmists, believe that the answers are in the palms of your hands. The purpose of this speech is twofold. First, to present a brief account on the origin of palmistry, some important factors considered in palm reading, and how these supposedly affect your personality and your future. Second, to present a better alternative to palmistry. To understand the process of palmistry one should have an open mind to life what ifs and that everything is for the unknown reason. Sometime we have to ask ourselves, "What is life all about" Journey Into Palmistry 4 A palmistry reader can interpret aspects of a persons' life by reading the lines of his palms. Palmistry begins with the obvious and proceeds, by innumerable intricate steps of
Monday, August 26, 2019
Morality is Not Relative - Research Paper Example Moral definition by a society is highly dependent on the perception, attitudes and preferences of a society in the day to day interactions of people that make up that society. According to James Rachels, morality is not relative. Morality and resultant issues can be looked from different points of view. Rachels is well aware of this fact. In his discussion, cultural relativism is considered, alongside moral absolutism. The idea here is to point out the shortcomings associated with cultural relativism in the subject matter; morality. Use of real life examples enhances RachelsÃ¢â¬â¢ ideas, bringing out the natural and social picture that is easily applicable to societies. This is easy to understand and relate with, given the activities that define a given society. A good example used is that of infants and the explanation of how the society would fail to support itself following a cultural relativism application in that society. Specifically, people are socially responsible for bring ing up infants under the best available conditions. If such social responsibilities were not a central focus of the society, then the survival of the infants could be threatened (Pojman 411). On the same note, the society regenerates itself through reproduction, replacing the dead with the newborns. Such a social activity occurs generally without the imposition of rules to govern it. This is evidenced by the fact that a society that would chose not to replace their dead is not by rules fixed to that. However, social responsibility has it that the society should ensure its continuity. This way, even without rules to govern how infants are brought up, the society does its best to ensure that infants survive and the society ensures its presence over generations. There exists a universal interconnectedness of societies around the world. Universally accepted orders that define the differences between and among societies have been found to link these societies. Societal differences may no t be of the magnitude that is thought to exist. Rachels notes this and provides examples that show evidence of this claim. The example used relate to a society that fails to eat cows while another does, due to various reasons known to these societies (Pojman 410). This is just but example in numerous social contexts around the world. Different societies fail to do something based on reasons unique to them. However, the fail-to-practice code of one society is practice code for another, portraying just how much societies are connected universally. Fixed lifestyles that do not uphold this factor are presented by cultural relativism. Moral absolutism plays a fundamental role in assessing social interconnectedness. Societies are characterized by both rights and wrongs. In other words, different societies accept the fact that there exits both right and wrong between and among social interactions. However, what is considered right by one society is not necessarily right to other societies. Right and wrongdoings are confined to a specific societal definition by a particular society. On the same note, one society can make strong grounds that another society is right in doing something, while others may refute the right to constitute a wrong. Although morality is defined uniquely by the concept of right and wrong from one society to another, there are instances that stand out to interest all societies in being within the norms or against such norms. Such an instance is that given by Rachels about
Sunday, August 25, 2019
Workplace romance - Thesis Example Some coworkers may take workplace to be of no interest to them even as others may see their love affair responded to with a high level of defense. Companies and organizations are confused in respect work place romance since they ought to give a free and conducive environment for workers as opposed supposed to creating fear and tension among workers. Another subject of confusion in relation o workplace romance relates to the right organ or department to handle such cases. Some managers feel that such relationships could affect the productivity of the company while others feel that workers are citizens who have rights to socialize in whichever way they like even in the organizational setup. This has seen companies in situations where they have been unable to come with approaches and policies that address office dating. It has become challenging when people from different departments fall in love, for example, the administrator having a love affair with a junior officer in a certain dep artment. Secondly, it has been of less effect when the administrator develops a romantic relationship with his or her secretary, when the same administrator is the one who is in charge of implementing the laid down policies. This paper will discuss different perspectives and opinions of different authors toward work place romance. According to Bytautas, Klenin, Marinescu and Appelbaum (2007), employers have experienced work place relationships for a long time. They indicate that employers are in a position to realize that workers have love relationships with another employee. Bytautas et al. indicate that companies have realized the effects that come with work place relationships. It is has negative effects on production since the respective couples tend to spend their time together thinking of each other instead of concentrating on the delivery of service. Bytautas et al. suggest that work place romance has been a result of an
Saturday, August 24, 2019
Rhetoric - Essay Example Persuasion, which is a key aspect of rhetoric, implores the use of specific types of words and sentence structures in order to appeal to the emotions of the audience thereby influencing them to the ideas of the artists. Writing is an art that just like any other demands professionalism and appropriate use of the artistic features. AristotleÃ¢â¬â¢s explanation of rhetoric provides artists with an objective view of writing as an art thereby underscoring the need for an author to have both and an objective and a purpose for writing. This way, the author identifies a target audience and develops a piece that achieves authenticity. This requires effective use of appropriate words in order to persuade the audience. Aristotle explains that rhetoric helps an article persuade the audience thereby convincing them to accept the ideas presented in the article. In order to achieve this, the author must have knowledge on the concept he or she explains and present them confidently and in a sequential manner thereby providing a progressive approach to the topic. Emotional appeal occurs only if the author uses specific words that will facilitate the persuasion. The author may for example use suspense in developing a problem. This heightens the audienceÃ¢â¬â¢s interest on the topical issue. Through suspense, the author provides the audience with a platform to develop a mental picture of the situation thereby validating the need for an urgent solution, which the article presents subsequently (Furley and Nehamas 32). This way, the author does not only obtain the attention of the audience thereby sustaining the readership of the article to conclusion but also gains the emotional appeal thereby persuading the vulnerable audience. Vivid description is yet another technique that helps achieve the emotional appeal by aiding the audience ability to develop mental images of the problem. Cognitive theory posits that the audience ability to recognize
Friday, August 23, 2019
The software architecture - Assignment Example The software application architecture is a basic structure that should meet all the software application requirements including technical as well as operational. The objective of developing software architecture is that the under development software application should qualify all the quality parameters defined in the architecture. The generic quality attributes include but are not limited to the performance, modifiability, reliability, interoperability, maintainability, portability, efficiency, effectiveness and security. It is pertinent to mention here that the advantages of using the software application cannot be achieved if the software application does not accomplish the quality parameters specified in the software architecture.Ã A definition of the software architecture provided by the Mary Shaw and David Garlan has been modified and refined by Grady Booch, Rich Reitman, Philippe Kruchten and Kurt Bittner. Moreover, the same has been provided by Microsoft at their website: Ã¢â¬Å"Software architecture encompasses the set of significant decisions about the organization of a software system including the selection of the structural elements and their interfaces by which the system is composed; behavior as specified in collaboration among those elements; composition of these structural and behavioral elements into larger subsystems; and an architectural style that guides this organization. There are few principles or guidelines require remembering while developing architecture of the software application.
Thursday, August 22, 2019
Deadly Unna Film Essay Australian Rules A comparative review by Anita Jetnikoff (QUT) for Australian Screen Education. Published as: Jetnikoff, Anita (2003) Australian Rules: a comparative review. Australian Screen Education(30):36-38. The title may mislead some viewers, as this is not a film about a football code, anymore than Bend it with Beckham is about soccer. This powerful, brave and rather brutal feature is the debut of Paul Goldman, who co-wrote the screenplay with the novelist Phillip Gwynne. Both the storylines and characters from GwynneÃ¢â¬â¢s awardwinning novel Deadly Unna? nd its sequel Nukkin Ya, have been combined in the film, which was commissioned by South Australian Film Corporation for the Adelaide Festival of Arts 2002, and caused a furore with the local Aboriginal community. The film was screened after much deliberation over the objections against depictions of a character resembling a member of the Penninsular community. This certainly suggests collaboration with Indigenous communities could have been sought at earlier stages of the project. In my reading of the film, however, it is the white community who emerge the more brutal, bigoted and shameful. The Aboriginal community, on the other hand, represent solidarity, and sharing. The film was released and promoted by Palace, with the slogan Ã¢â¬Ëlive by the rules play by the rulesÃ¢â¬â¢. There is, however, an almost apartheid divide between the black [Nunga) and white [Goonya) communities in this film and the central characterÃ¢â¬â¢s personal navigating between the two, means he must break unwritten rules. The film is based on aspects of two novels, the partly autobiographical novel Deadly Unna, and its sequel, Nukkin Ya, Nunga expressions for Ã¢â¬ËGreat heyÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËSee you laterÃ¢â¬â¢. Both novels were easy to read and full of humour in spite of the serious subject matter of racism, interracial relationships, adolescent angst, death and revenge. The novels belong to the adolescent problem or coming-of-age genre and are being studied in secondary schools. The film has little of the novelsÃ¢â¬â¢ lightness and the narratorÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to laugh at himself and his communityÃ¢â¬â¢s foibles. This sometimes disturbing filmÃ¢â¬â¢s tone is brutal, the landscape stark, sordid and in decay. Most of the characters occupying the saline, arid coastal town are nasty. The adult men are barflies, maggot breeders, fornicators and losers and the women are victims or sluts. This hopeless adult world offers nothing for the young in this fishing town. Viewers are invited to identify with the young, for whom hope lies in escape. The central figure of Blacky (Nathan Phillips), is an intelligent 14 year old caught between the literary world of his imagination and the literal world of his small townsÃ¢â¬â¢ bigotry. His mother, who encourages him to play football and to do well at school, is a battler, a victim of his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s brutality. The dilapidated house the Black family occupy oozes poverty and neglect. These are white fringe dwellers. In the novel Blacky refers to what kind of chops the family will consume as indicative of the Ã¢â¬Ëpov metreÃ¢â¬â¢. They shop at the local op shop. Like many small rural Australian towns, this coastal community struggles to survive. The black and white communities in the region are divided, separated physically by a stretch of coastline, whites at the port and blacks at the point. Even the local pub segregates the Aboriginal drinkers from the white ones. The irony is that the local football team is only viable when the Aboriginal boys come over from the point to play. The sporting fixture allows the communities to merge, but the union stops there. Blacky crosses the racial divide to befriend Dumby Red (Luke Carroll) a talented Aboriginal Australian Rules Player from the Point and to romance DumbyÃ¢â¬â¢s sister Clarence (Lisa Flanagan). Whereas book built up the friendship through BlackyÃ¢â¬â¢s doubt and hesitation about Dumby, this is not dealt with in the film. The film opens with the two characters already mates, sitting together in the dilapidated shed of the red dirt football field, commiserating over the ineffectiveness of their coach, Arks (Kevin Harrington). DumbyÃ¢â¬â¢s spectacular football prowess has been spotted by a city talent scout, which sets up the need for him to win best Player in the final against a much stronger team. A contract to a city football team would mean a possible escape from the bigotry and emptiness of the PenninsularÃ¢â¬âhis chance to be a sporting success. Blacky finds himself an unwitting hero and awarded best team man for winning the premiership game. He unwittingly collides with the toughest star player on the opposing team and is knocked unconscious, along with his gigantic opponent. The shooting sequences of the match were not especially riveting, but this was in keeping with the importance of the game to the story. The film is not about winning or losing, but the personal integrity of the play or the journey in the ongoing process of discovering identity. The medal for Ã¢â¬ËBest on the GroundÃ¢â¬â¢, rightly belonged to Dumby Red. His ticket out of the hopeless community, however, was denied to him, because rather than kicking a sure goal, he had passed a ball to a cousin who had not handled the ball all day. The cultural code of sharing was stronger than the competitive need to win. In the film, the loss of the award to the coachÃ¢â¬â¢s son paves the way for DumbyÃ¢â¬â¢s tragic demise. He joins Pretty (Tony Briggs) in an armed robbery of the pub, perhaps to extract an alternative prize to the one heÃ¢â¬â¢d been denied. The publican, Mac, laid out in a drunken stupor on the pool table, is beaten even more senseless by Pretty. The noise rouses BlackyÃ¢â¬â¢s father (Simon Westaway) who shoots and kills his sonÃ¢â¬â¢s friend Dumby Red in revenge for the publicanÃ¢â¬â¢s beating. In the novel the publican was the murderer, but the filmÃ¢â¬â¢s central villain is BlackyÃ¢â¬â¢s father, Bob, who represents fear, loathing and menace. His violent rages left his own family in fear of him. In one memorable scene they escape his menacing torment of their mother behind closed doors by escaping through the window and sleeping in the chicken coop. The feeling is that this experience was not new to them. Blacky is torn in the novel between his initial attraction to Clarence in Deadly Unna, which he conceals from his white Ã¢â¬ËfriendsÃ¢â¬â¢ in order to attract the attention of a rich white Ã¢â¬ËcamperÃ¢â¬â¢ girl. In the sequel this relationship between Blacky and Clarence and Blacky and his father represent two kinds of coming of age. His masculinity is tested early on in a storm at sea and later when he was caught in the shed stealing paint to cover a racist slogan in the local boatshed. His intelligence means little to his father, and his good grades and scholarship to Kings College in Adelaide are ignored. In the sequel Nukkin Ya, the filial relationship seems almost mended when his father takes on the renovation of a Ã¢â¬ËwindjammerÃ¢â¬â¢ to bring potential tourism to the town. His fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s project becomes obsessive at the expense of putting food on the familyÃ¢â¬â¢s table, but the male relationship seems to be temporarily repaired along with the boat, which becomes symbolic of rebuilding strength, unity and hope around the fantasy of the future. In the novels we experience BlackyÃ¢â¬â¢s angst at discovering his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s infidelity to his mother. Blacky and his friend Pickles, stumble upon their adulterous fathers visiting the Aboriginal women at the point. The irony of this is that the entire community seemed set gainst the burgeoning love relationship between Blacky and DumbyÃ¢â¬â¢s sister Clarence. The fact that the cross-race relationship of the father is not dealt with in the film makes his violent reaction to finding Clarence innocently sleeping alongside Blacky in his bedroom connected more with his hatred of Aboriginal people, than it is to do with his guilt over murdering Dumby Red. It is a response reduced to racism alone, rather than his own guilt and hypocrisy, which in the novels is built up subtly through the two volumes. The antagonist in the second novel, having moved away from the father, is embodied by the figure of Lovely (Pretty, in the film) who menaces Blacky over his relationship with Clarence. Lovely sports a hate tattoo on his fingers and is a violent instigator in both book and film. The disclosure of the white menÃ¢â¬â¢s infidelity at the expense of the black women, who remain nameless and faceless, leads to the climax of the second novel. The boat is set alight, which symbolizes the death of the relationships between Blacky and his father and his community. Lovely is framed, Blacky absolves Lovely in court by taking the blame, but Pickles (Tom Budge ) was the real arsonist. This false confession, leads to Blacky becoming a cipher in his own town, where boats and the sea are peoples workplaces. He becomes a Ã¢â¬Ëboat burnerÃ¢â¬â¢ in the cultural imaginary and is forced to leave. In the film this purging is less powerful and seems to emerge from some kind of corporate malice rather than revenge. Pickles manically sets alight rival maggot breeder DarcyÃ¢â¬â¢s breeding drums, which has less symbolic poignancy than the boat burning in the novel. BlackyÃ¢â¬â¢s central challenge in the film is to reaffirm his masculinity by standing up to his father, through the relationship with Clarence. Blacky is constructed by his father as a Ã¢â¬Ëgutless wonder. Ã¢â¬â¢ BlackyÃ¢â¬â¢s painful journey to manhood, is much harsher in the film than the book. In the novel the father is a violent adulterer, but in the film, he kills BlackyÃ¢â¬â¢s best friend. BlackyÃ¢â¬â¢s attendance at DumbyÃ¢â¬â¢s funeral represents a betrayal of familial solidarity in the eyes of the father. The relationship was not strong enough however, for Blacky to take his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s side. At this point, Blacky abdicates from identifying with his father. He has begun to flee the emasculated self constructed by his father, towards a more potent, sexual self, embodied by his attraction and identification with the other through the literal Ã¢â¬ËbodyÃ¢â¬â¢ of Dumby and the physical, sexual body of Clarence. What is morally worrisome is that the father, who both Blacky and the viewer see as a murderer, continues to live in the community with impugnity, the Ã¢â¬Ëcommon senseÃ¢â¬â¢ gap we fill is that he claims he shot Dumby in selfdefense. Blacky courageously resists his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s imperative to stay away from the funeral. In the filmÃ¢â¬â¢s powerful and moving climax, the battered, but united family in the background witnesses the final stand off between father and son. Blacky literally stands up to his father, not by competing in battle of fists, but resisting by sheer will and strength of character. The father leaves in a vicious rage and we canÃ¢â¬â¢t help feeling that the family will be better off with him gone. The second novel Nukkin Ya begins with hope of Blacky taking a scholarship at Kings in Adelaide. His girlfriend Clarence achieves a scholarship to art school and Blacky has a reason to follow her. The film ends with the two young lovers romantically swimming in the clear waters, symbolically cleansing themselves of the grime and grease of prejudice, which had tainted their relationship until that point. The film treats the romance in a much lighter way than the books. There is no stand off between the characters; in fact Clarence becomes BlackyÃ¢â¬â¢s bridge between the two cultures. In the film it is Clarence who stands up to Bob Black in BlackyÃ¢â¬â¢s bedroom with dignity and silent resistance. Lisa FlanaganÃ¢â¬â¢s performance was elegant and dignified. It was Clarence who gently cut through the wall of hostility from the Nunga boys at her brotherÃ¢â¬â¢s funeral- allowing Blacky to mourn his friendÃ¢â¬â¢s death. It was Clarence who understood BlackyÃ¢â¬â¢s poetic allusions to dying stars- these two are cosmically connected and there is an almost Shakespearean sense of their fate. The love scenes provide the filmÃ¢â¬â¢s only softness and the resolution, although moving, is not sentimental. The young people must leave the still-divided community, to survive together.
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
Green Mountain Coffee Essay Green Mountain Coffee Roasters opened as a cafe in 1981 in Vermont. They roasted their own coffee and before long, demand grew and local restaurants and inns began to order their premium roasted coffee as well. Today the Company has extensive wholesale, direct mail and e-commerce operations. Green Mountain Coffee now has a distribution facility and two production sites in Vermont, and a manufacturing and warehousing facility in Knox County, TN (GMCR.com). GMCRÃ¢â¬â¢s operations are managed through two business units. The Specialty Coffee business unit produces coffee, tea and hot cocoa from its family of brands, including TullyÃ¢â¬â¢s Coffee, Green Mountain Coffee and NewmanÃ¢â¬â¢s Own Organics coffee. The Keurig business unit is a leading manufacturer of gourmet single-cup brewing systems and markets its patented single-cup brewing systems for consumers at home and away-from-home. K-Cup portion packs for Keurig Single-Cup Brewers are produced by a variety of licensed brands, including Green Mountain Coffee, Starbucks, and TullyÃ¢â¬â¢s Coffee (GMCR.com). Keurig, Incorporated, which became a subsidiary of GMCR in 2006, is the second business unit of Green Mountain Coffee Roasters, Inc. Keurig was launched in 1990 by Peter Dragone and John Sylvan, who asked themselves why do we brew coffee by the pot when we drink it by the cup? From this question, the concept of Keurig K-Cup portion-pack brewing was born. Keurig brewing systems employ a design that utilizes single serving pods of coffee grounds that the machine pushes hot water through and into the waiting cup. The result is a fresh, hot cup of coffee that has not been sitting in the coffee pot waiting to be poured. In 1998, after eight years of development, Keurig released an industrial-strength, single-serve machine that delivered a perfect cup of coffee or tea every time. Keurig brewing systems employ a design that utilizes single serving pods of coffee grounds that the machine pushes hot water through and into the waiting cup. The result is a fresh, hot cup of coffee that has not been sitting in the coffee pot waiting to be poured. K-cups are offered in 249 varieties on the Keurig website. Most retail grocery stores sell several varieties of K-cups. There are two types of Keurig brewers, the K-cup system and the new Vue brewing system. There are 12 different K cup style brewers. In the spring of 2012, Keurig released a Vue brewing system that gives the consumer the ability to customize their drink by offering more cup size options and by brewing specialty beverages, such as lattes and cappuccinos. To date, there is only one model of the Vue brewing system available. Competitor Analysis The market for single-cup coffee brewers is a fairly new one and has very few companies selling single-cup brewing systems. The market is an oligopoly, with GMCRs Keurig holding approximately 75 percent of the US market share (Foxbusiness.com), followed by the Tassimo by Kraft, Nescafes Dolce Gusto and Senseo. The global leader is NestlÃ ©s Nespresso system with 35 percent, followed by Senseo brewers with 18 percent, and Kraft Foods Tassimo with 8 percent. Green Mountain ranks fourth globally with almost 8 percent (Geller Dalal, 2012). Almost all of the coffee brewers in the market are priced between $75 and $175. For around $100, the consumer has a choice of a hand full of basic brewers. The single-cup brewers each have their own system with pods or cups that work exclusively with their machine. Most of the companies in the market make most of their profit from the sale of their coffee as opposed to their machines. Mr. Coffee released a new machine in the fall that is compatible with Keurigs K-cups specifically to edge in on Keurigs share of the market. It is compatible with Keurigs K-cups and is less expensive to the consumer. The main competitors in the mainstream single-cup coffee system market in the United States are Keurig, Tassimo, and Senseo. The less competitive players in the market are Mr. Coffee and Nescafe, while NestlÃ ©s Nespresso is currently the only serious contender in the high-end market in the United States. GMCR invests significant resources and capital in engineering and research and development in order to keep Keurigs position as the leader in the single-cup brewing market. As a result, they have a strong and growing portfolio of market-leading, proprietary technology. KeurigÃ¢â¬â¢s integrated engineering team drives fast and original product development in brewers, portion packs, and high-speed packaging lines; all three areas that supported KeurigÃ¢â¬â¢s single-cup system. The engineering team at Keurig includes mechanical, software, and nutritional science, as well as quality assurance and industrial engineering. The companyÃ¢â¬â¢s emphasis on quality products, easy-to-use features, and innovative technologies has earned Keurig high marks in customer satisfaction. GMCR started distribution of the new single-cup Keurig premium coffee system to office coffee service and food service providers in 1998. KeurigÃ¢â¬â¢s strategy to gain market share in the office market is to sell machines to distributors and encourage them to give the machines away or lease them for a small fee. The economics of the strategy works for distributors because the real profit is in selling K-Cups. Keurig sells its machines, both to distributors and to individual consumers, at near cost and gives the machines away or rents them cheaply to businesses, in order to secure the customers business. They make up the cost in less than six months just on the sales of their K-cups. Keurig has licensed several additional coffee roasters to package gourmet coffee and teas into K-Cups, all of which pay royalties to Keurig based on the number of K-Cups shipped. In addition to offering Green Mountain Coffee and NewmanÃ¢â¬â¢s Own Organics and Celestial Seasonings Tea brands, which are packaged and sold by Green Mountain Coffee, Keurig offers several other North American K-Cup brands, such as Caribou, Folgers and most recently, Starbucks (Starbucksdrinks.com). The weaknesses of GMCRs Keurig are that the K-cups are not recyclable and create more waste than traditionally brewed coffee, since the cups are made of plastic and aluminum. The company has received some bad press for being not eco-friendly enough. Another significant weakness is that Keurigs strategy relies heavily on selling K-cups. The company makes most of its profit from the sale of coffee. However, in the fall of 2012, two of Keurigs patents expire and other companies will likely begin producing pods that are compatible with Keurig brewing systems. Already, there are reusable cups on the market that consumers can buy to fill with the ground coffee of their choice. Tassimo is made by Kraft and was first introduced to the market in 2004. There are three Tassimo single-cup brewers currently on the market. Tassimo brewers use non-reusable plastic beverage pods called Tassimo discs (T-Discs), which are produced by Kraft. Each has a barcode printed on its label, which the machine reads to calculate the amount of water, brewing time, and temperature for the specific beverage. The strengths of Tassimos strategy are centered around their unique barcode. While Keurig pods are pre-measured to have one amount, no matter how strong or how large you want your coffee, the barcode on the T-Disc tell the Tassimo brewer exactly how to make the perfect cup of the drink in the disc. Tassimos T-Discs also use liquid milk, instead of powdered milk in their T-Discs and is capable of making beverages with frothed milk (Tassimodirect.com). The result is that the consumer can make better specialty drinks, such as lattes and cappuccinos in their Tassimo. Also, the marke t has already seen the introduction of reusable cups for the Keurig, that the consumer can fill with the ground coffee of their choosing. This is bad news for a company that makes virtually all of its profit from coffee sales. There are also reusable pods for the Senseo. Tassimo is the only system that is protected because of their unique barcode system. The weakness that is holding Tassimo back from taking more market share is the lack of popular brands of coffee available in T-Disc form. While Keurig has lots of big name coffees available in K-cup form, Tassimos most well-known brand available in T-Disc is Maxwell house. A very recent, and concerning, weakness is that Tassimo recalled 835,000 coffee makers in the United States and another 900,000 in Canada after dozens of reports of the brewers spraying hot liquid, coffee grounds or tea leaves (http://www.cpsc.gov). There have been 140 reports of incidents with the brewers spraying hot liquid, coffee grounds or tea leaves onto consumers, including 37 reports of second-degree burn injuries. This is very bad for Tassimo because when people do internet research to help them decide which single-cup brewer is right for them, this recall is the first thing they will see. Senseo is made by Sara Lee, who recently bought the brand from Philips, and was one of the first single-cup brewers on the market in 2001. Unlike the other single-cup systems, the Senseo uses coffee pods instead of cups. The pods are made of coffee-filter paper and the consumer has the option to use one for a regular strength, or small, cup of coffee or to use two pods for a larger cup, such as a travel mug, or for a stronger cup of coffee. The ability to choose one or two pods is Senseos biggest strength. Reviews from coffee critics consistently give Senseo high marks in flavor and quality when compared to the other popular single-cup coffee systems. Senseos weaknesses are that they have built an unattractive brand image and that they do not have contracts with any well-known coffee companies and have very little variety in the coffee pods that are available. They produce 11 coffee blends, all under the Senseo name, for the Senseo brewer (senseo.us). In an interview in February, Sara Lees Executive Chairman, Jan Bennink, told Reuters that the Senseo is a very unsexy machine (reuters.com) and that young people do not want to be associated with the brand. Market Analysis Worldwide coffee sales peaked at $70.86 billion in 2011. Sales of single-serve packets accounted for $5.75 billion of that, or 8 per cent (Geller Dalal, 2012). The single-cup coffee market grew at a rate 31 percent from 2010. Most Americans who consume coffee are still drinking traditionally brewed coffee. Coffee brewed in a single-cup machine from a pod, K-cup or T-Disc cost more than twice as much as the average ground coffee brewed in a drip coffee maker. There are few barriers to entry into the single-cup coffee market. Companies that already have brand-name recognition are more able, and likely, to produce their own single-cup system. One barrier to entry is that there are already some highly recognized names in the market that will make it difficult for an unknown company to compete. Another barrier is the high cost of entry into the market. Developing the technology to create a single-cup brewing system that will take market share from the established players is a daunting task that will discourage small companies from attempting to move into the market. The most interesting potential entrant to the market is Starbucks. In March, 2012, they announced that they will be releasing a single-cup coffee system later this year (Andrejczak, 2012). This is interesting because Starbucks and GMCR struck a deal in 2011 to sell Starbucks coffee in K-cups. The K-cups have been a huge success for both companies. So far, both companies are denying that the release of Starbucks Verismo will negatively affect the sell of Keurig machines and K-cups. The Verismo is being marketed as a high-end, high-pressure, specialty coffee system, more similar to the Nespresso than the Keurig and Tassimo, but considering how popular the Starbucks K-cups are, it will be interesting to see how its release affects Keurig and the single-cup coffee market. The Nespresso is worth mentioning in the potential entrants section because although they have been making single-cup machines for some time, they are only recently trying to grow in the United States market. They are o pening small boutiques in major cities, most recently in San Francisco this year, and advertising on major television channels. They market their product as a high-end system, but it will be interesting to see how much of Keurigs market share they take. The substitutes in the single-cup coffee brewer market are traditional drip brewer coffee makers, caffeinated sodas, energy drinks and coffee from a coffee house, such as Starbucks, or from a fast food restaurant. McDonalds has invested a lot of money and advertising in the last five years reinventing their image as a hip coffee shop. Consumers can now get good coffee and specialty coffee beverages like cappuccinos and frappuccinos through the drive-thru window at a reasonable cost. Suppliers have moderate bargaining power in the market. If companies that produce coffee do not want to put their coffee in K-Cup or T-Disc form, that hurts the companies that manufacture the brewing systems. Senseo has no relationship with coffee producers, and it has drastically affected their business. Customers have moderate bargaining power as well. Most of the pods, discs and cups for the systems are sold in grocery stores or mass merchandisers. If Wal-Mart throws their support behind one of the companies, that company is more than likely going to experience growth in sales, while the other companies will be negatively affected. Likewise, if customers decide that they do not agree with the values, cost, etc of one of the companies in the market, they can take their business elsewhere and the loss of sales would hurt the company. However, if they are particular about the brand of coffee that they drink, they are tied to the company that sells that brand in a form that can be brewed in their machine. Keurig is the only machine that sells Starbucks coffee, for example, at least until the Verismo debuts this fall.
Financial Reporting Systems of Germany and the Netherlands Nobes (1998) classifies the German financial reporting system as a Type B (weak equity) and The Netherlands as Type A (strong equity). Compare the financial reporting systems of Germany and The Netherlands. National differences have all become stereotypical. Indeed the differences between countries may be vast. Influences such as family origin, or attitudes towards business culture are inherently reflected in the way businesses are run, managed and owned. There are also many reasons as to why there are differences in financial reporting. These depend on the character of the national legal system, the type of industry financing, the interrelationship between tax and finance reporting systems, the extent of accounting theory progression and even language.(Elliott, 2006) In terms of the legal system between Germany and the Netherlands, it is clear tat they both follow a civil law system which is different to the common la procedure of the United Kingdom contained within the Companies Act 1981. However, for the purposes of this essay, I will focus on the comparisons between the financial supporting systems of German and the Netherlands with regards to the NobesÃ¢â¬â¢ (1998) classification of Germany being a weak equity (Type B) while the Netherlands in a strong Equity (Type A). I will consider NobesÃ¢â¬â¢ theory by considering equity figures for both Germany and the Netherlands in respect of their types of equity and will briefly compare the financial reporting systems of the two countries. Although equity is represented in many different forms, it is generally defined as Ã¢â¬Å"the value of a company which is the property of its ordinary shareholders (the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s assets less its liabilities, not including the ordinary share capital) In terms of financial accounting reporting, considerations of which is the relevant way of financing a business, i.e. the information required by equity investors are different to those of load creditors. Strong equity can be defined as a high ratio between equity market capitalisation and Gross Domestic Product (GDP) whilst weak equity is a low ratio between market capitalisation and Gross Domestic Product (GDP). I, Germany had the lowest equity of 5 countries which were studied. (49%). This shows that unlike America, France or presumably the Netherlands, Germany does not rely heavily on individual investors. Specifically, Nobes (1998) develops a frameork that seek to explain the differences in international accounting. Nobes catagorises accounting systems into two types: Class A (accounting for outside shareholders) and Class B (accounting for tax and creditors). Two variables determine whether a country will have a Class A or a Class B accounting system: (1) the type of culture and (2) the strength of the equity-outsider financing system. According to the model, countries with Type A cultures have developed strong outsider-equity financing systems that have led to the development of a Class A financial reporting system. Therefore, like America and the UK, the Netherlands has relied on a Type A accounting system that is relaint on a high ratio of equity investment as oposed to loan creditors. Conversely, countries with Type B cultures have weak outsider-equity financing (i.e. weak equity) systems that have led to the development of a Type B financial reporting system . This model is comonly known to be widespread practice within continenatl Europe including Germany. Nobes (1998) stsudies the link between the financing system and accounting, but also believes that a Type A system in terms of equity financing is not entirely dependant on Type A accounting, but instead external or outsider equity financing is imperative. By drawing on examples, Nobes (1998) examines Japan. Japan is a country with many listed companies as well as large equity market, but instead of the market being supported externally, most of the shares are owend by Janpanese banks or other companies, investors etc). According to the model, financial reporting in Japan should exhibit the characteristics of a Type B accounting system. Nonethelss, Nobes (1998) in explaining why Germany is substantialy different to the Netherlands claims that differences in culture, i.e. countries that have altered their culture through war will usually adopt the culture and accounting system imported from the dominating country. This explains, for example, why some post colonial African countries possess a type A system despite having very weak accounting systems. As noted earlier, Nobes focuses his discussion on the link between financing systems and accounting. He assumes that some cultures lead to strong equity-outsider financing systems and others do not, but he leaves the examination of this assumed relationship for others. Nobes appears to assign a very broad view of culture to this variable in his model. In a simplified model presented earlier in his paper he refers to this variable as culture, including institutional structures A brief examination of the differences betweent the culture of institutional structures is examined below. While a Type A classification separates accounting and tax rules, Type B does not. Type A in comparison to Type B also has an extensive auditing system. This is true for the Netherlands in comparison to Germany. In US, UK and Netherlands, link between taxable income and accounting income is much weaker, with separate tax accounts and financial accounts. The information is prepared with external investor information in mind thereby focusing on a large equity market (Type A). In comparison a Type B taxation system such as that of Germany tax accounts which are published financial accounts are not usually prepared for investors, but instead internal forces such as company investors, shareholders etc. In sum, the Type A system such as that in practice in the Netherlands and as proposed by Nobes is one of dynamic accounting formulated with the external investor in mind thereby creating increased demand for external investment. On the other hand, Germany experiences the converse of this, with taxation and accounting system which is interlinked and an intention of financial reporting for internal investors rather than external investors in mind. Bibliography Classification based on Corporate Finance, http://www.people.ex.ac.uk/wl203/BEAM011/Materials/Lecture 10/IA1 Lecture 10.pdf Elliott et al, Financial Accounting and Reporting, (2006 10th ed) Dictionary of Accounting, Collin Publishing (2001) Nobes (1998) Footnotes  Elliott et al, Financial Accounting and Reporting, (2006 10th ed) p 136  Ibid, p137.  Dictionary of Accounting, Collin Publishing (2001) p.99  Elliott et al, Financial Accounting and Reporting, (2006 10th ed) p 137  Nobes (1998) p. 177  Classification based on Corporate Finance, http://www.people.ex.ac.uk/wl203/BEAM011/Materials/Lecture 10/IA1 Lecture 10.pdf
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
The Homeless Problem in America In Charles E. KingÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Homelessness in AmericaÃ¢â¬ , he writes about the population of homeless people in America and the fact that children are part of the growing population of the homeless in America. Also, in Ã¢â¬Å"My Anger and Sadness Over PesticidesÃ¢â¬ , Cesar Chavez writes that pesticides have endangered the lives of farm workers and their families. In addition, in Ã¢â¬Å"The Gulf War is Still Being FoughtÃ¢â¬ , Joelle Foshee writes that even though the gulf war has ended, a new war is still being fought and this new war is known as the Ã¢â¬Å"Gulf War SyndromeÃ¢â¬ . These are all injustices in America today. However, homelessness in America is the injustice I have chosen to address because the population of homeless people has grown higher due to insufficient help from the gove...
Monday, August 19, 2019
How to Fight in Hockey Successfully Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Sometimes hockey players lose their cool on the ice and get into a fight with an opponent. The fights look spontaneous and unplanned, but there are many techniques and tricks that will help a player to be a better fighter. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã When a fight begins, the first thing to do is to drop your stick and gloves onto the ice. It is always better to punch with your bare fists so it hurts the opponent more. Also, it is easier to grab with your bare hands. Next, you must rip off the opponents helmet by grabbing the back of the helmet and pulling it toward yourself. Once you have the helmet off, the real rumble begins. From this point on in the scuffle, there are a few very successful techniques used by the best of the pros to win the fight. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã One very good way to win is to, first, punch the opponent in the stomach so he bends over toward you. Next, grab the bottom of the back side of his jersey and forcefully pull it over his head. By pulling the jersey over the opposition's head, you make it so he can't see or move his arms very well. With the jersey over his head, you can finish the fight by throwing the punches that you throw the hardest to your opponent's face and stomach. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Another good technique is to grab the opponent's collar of his jersey right below his chin with one hand and pull him foreword quickly. While you slam him forward, use your other hand to punch him in the face. This technique hurts the opponent the most because his momentum moving toward you makes the blow twice as hard as an ordinary punch. Continue to use this technique over and over until the fight is done. The opponent usually will not know where he is, so it will be a fairly easy fight. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Along with the previous techniques, there are also a few tips that will help you out. First of all, avoid throwing your opponent on to the ice. When you do this, the referees can easily break up the brawl. Also, always keep your hands up to be able to block blows to the face and head area. Lastly, try not to pull the opponent's hair. This is considered to be very cheap in a hockey fight. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã On a final note, by following all these tips and techniques, you will be
Sunday, August 18, 2019
European settlers have a long history of mistreating Native Americans. The most famous example is the Trail of Tears in which President Van Buren and the federal government forcibly and violently removed Cherokee Indians in 1838 from their native land. Over 18 thousand Cherokee women, men and children were forced to walk 1,000 miles from Georgia to Oklahoma. Of these people, 4,000 died from harsh weather, starvation and exposure to illnesses. European settlers during this time viewed Native Americans as uncivilized savage and used this perception to justify violently removing the Native Americans from their land. Native Americans initially accepted the European settlements but pleaded against being removed. The status of African-Americans in this time has generated debate among historians but there is enough evidence to show they were perceived similar to Native Americans; as not equal to European settlers. European settlers justified this by denying their natural rights. African-Am ericans, however, were seen as useful resources and they remained on their land and were used as slaves. In return African-Americans responded by attempting to escape to their freedom. Native Americans were viewed poorly in the eyes of European settlers. "Europeans early perceptions of Indians were an important factor in how explorers and early colonist dealt with Native American people and in the end subdued them. They were sometimes considered barbarians because of their different lifestyle. European settled discussed in primary sources how their rituals and traditions were "horrible and abominable, and deserving punishment.Ã¢â¬ For example, Native Americans sacrifice souls to their idols as a ritual. Europeans did not think this was good behavi... ...wn ever received a like sentence. The court made these rulings simply because of the color of their skins, which to them reduced African-Americans to a status lower than any white person. It is evident that the Native Americans were unfairly removed from their homeland because the Europeans settlers saw them as savages not worthy to live among them. The Native Americans responded to their cruelty with pleads of desperation. These pleads of desperation were annoyed and instead excuses of doing whatÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"bestÃ¢â¬ for them both proceeded. Works Cited Breen, T. H., and Stephen Innes. "Myne owne ground": race and freedom on Virginia's Eastern Shore, 1640-1676. 25th anniversary Ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004. Wheeler, William Bruce, and Susan D. Becker. Discovering the American past: a look at the evidence. 6th ed. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 2007.
Saturday, August 17, 2019
Media systems dependency theory (MSDT), or simply Ã¢â¬Å"media dependency,Ã¢â¬ was developed by Sandra Ball-Rokeach and Melvin DeFleur in 1976.  The theory is grounded in classical sociological literature positing that media and their audiences should be studied in the context of larger social systems. MSDT ties together the interrelations of broad social systems, mass media, and the individual into a comprehensive explanation of media effects.At its core, the basic dependency hypothesis states that the more a person depends on media to meet needs, the more important media will be in a person's life, and therefore the more effects media will have on a person.The relationships between componentsDependency on media emerges from three relationships.1) The relationship between the society and the media Within this relationship, media access and availability are regarded as important antecedents to an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s experience with the media. The nature of media dependence on s ocietal systems varies across political, economic, and cultural system.2) The relationship between the media and the audience This relationship is the key variable in this theory because it affects how people might use a mass medium. This relationship also varies across media systems. The more salient the information needs , the stronger are the motivation to seek mediated information and the dependency on the medium. In result, the likelihood for the media to affect audiences becomes greater. 3) The relationship between the society and the audience. The societies influence consumersÃ¢â¬â¢ needs and motives for media use, and provide norms, values, knowledge, and laws for their members.Ã Social system can function an alternatives to the media by offering similar services of the media.Media needs and media dependencyThree types of needsAccording to Ball-Rokeach and DeFleur, three media needs determine how important media is to a person at any given moment: 1) The need to understa nd one's social world (surveillance) 2) The need to act meaningfully and effectively in that world (social utility) 3) The need to escape from that world when tensions are high (fantasy-escape) When these needs for media are high, the more people turnto media to meet these needs, and therefore the media have a greater opportunity to effect them. That said, none of these media needs are constant over long periods of time. They change based on aspects of our social environment.Two basic conditions for hightened media needsMedia dependency theory states two specific conditions under which people's media needs, and consequently people's dependency on media and the potential for media effects, are heightened. The first condition of heightened media needs occurs when the number of media and centrality of media functions in a society are high.For instance, in modernized countries like the United States, there are many media outlets and they serve highly centralized social functions. In the United States alone, the media act as a Ã¢â¬Å"fourth branchÃ¢â¬ of government, an alarm system during national emergencies, and as a tool for entertainment and escape, whereas in the underdeveloped world the media are not as numerous and serve far fewer functions. As such, the media have a greater opportunity to serve needs and exert effects in contemporary America than in a third world country.The second condition of heightened media needs occurs when a society is undergoing social change and conflict. When there is a war or large-scale public protests like during Vietnam or the Arab Spring, a national emergency like the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, or a natural disaster like Hurricane Katrina, people turn to media to help understand these important events. Consequently, the media have a greater opportunity to exert effects during these times of social change and conflict.The effects of media messageBall-Rokeach and DeFleur suggests that the cognitive, behavioral a nd affective consequences of media use are premised upon characteristics of both individuals and their social environment.CognitiveThere are five types of cognitive effects that will be exerted on audiences, the first of which is the creation and resolution of ambiguity. Ambiguity occurs when audiences receive inadequate or incomplete information about their social world.When there is high ambiguity, stress is created, and audiences are more likely to turn to mass media to resolve ambiguity. Ambiguity might be especially prevalent during times of social change or conflict. The second effect is agenda-setting. This is another reason why we might call dependency a Ã¢â¬Å"comprehensiveÃ¢â¬ theory of media effects Ã¢â¬â it incorporates the entire theory of agenda-setting within its theoretical framework. Like any other effect, media agenda-setting effects should be heightened during times when the audienceÃ¢â¬â¢s needs and therefore dependency on media are high.So, for instance, if our informational needs and dependency on media was high during the invasion of Iraq in 2003, we would have been more susceptible to agenda-setting effects, and we would have therefore perceived the Iraq War as the most important problem (MIP) facing the United States. Third is attitude formation. Media exposes us to completely new people, such as political figures and celebrities, not to mention physical objects like birth control pills or car safety mechanisms that we come to form attitudes about.Dependency does not suggest media are monolithic in their ability to influence attitudes, but the theory does suggest that media play a role in selecting objects and people for which people form attitudes about. If a person is experiencing greater media dependency, we would therefore expect that the person will form more (or more complex) attitudes about these attitude-objects than people with low media dependency. Media also have the potential cognitive effect of expanding people's b elief systems.Media can create a kind of Ã¢â¬Å"enlargementÃ¢â¬ of citizen's beliefs by disseminating information about other people, places, and things. Expansion of peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s belief systems refers to a broadening or enlarging of beliefs in a certain category. For example, a constant flow of information about global warming will expand peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s beliefs about pollution affecting the earthÃ¢â¬â¢s atmosphere, about cap and trade and other policies, and about personal contributions to global warming.These beliefs meet with and are incorporated into an existing value system regarding religion, free enterprise, work, ecology, patriotism, recreation, and the family. Last is value clarification and conflict. Media help citizens clarify values (equality, freedom, honesty, forgiveness) often by precipitating information about value conflicts. For instance, during the 1960s the mass media regularly reported on the activities of the CivilRights movement, presenting conflicts between individual freedoms (e. g.Ã , a businessmanÃ¢â¬â¢s property rights to deny blacks entrance) and equality (e. g. , human rights). When such conflicts play out in the mass media, the value conflicts are identified, resulting in audiences forming their own value positions. Such a position can be painful to articulate because it can force a choice between mutually incompatible goals and the means for obtaining them. However, in the process of trying to decide which is more important in a particular case, general value priorities can become clarified.AffectiveBall-Rokeach and DeFleur mentions several possible affective media effects that are more likely to occur during times of heightened dependency.  First is desensitization, which states that prolonged exposure to violent content can have a Ã¢â¬Å"numbingÃ¢â¬ effect on audiences, promoting insensitivity or the lack of desire toward helping others when violent encounters happen in real life. Second, exposure to ne ws messages or TV dramas that portray crime-ridden cities can increase people's fear or anxiety about living in or even traveling to a city. Media can also have effects on morale and feelings of alienation.The degree of positive or negative mass media depictions of social groups can cause fluctuations in people's sense of morale in belonging to that group or in their sense of alienation from that group.BehavioralThere are two broad categories of behavioral effects that Ball-Rokeach and DeFleur identify. The first broad category is called Ã¢â¬Å"activationÃ¢â¬ effects, which refer to instances in which media audiences do something they would not otherwise have done as a consequence of receiving media messages. Behavioral effects are largely thought to work through cognitive and affective effects.For instance, a woman reading a news story about sexism in the workplace might form an attitude toward sexism that creates a negative emotional state, the culmination of which is joining a womenÃ¢â¬â¢s rights march in her local community. The second broad category of behavioral effects is called Ã¢â¬Å"deactivation,Ã¢â¬ and refers to instances in which audiences would have otherwise done something, but don't do as a consequence of media messages. For example, the primary presidential campaign has become longer and increasingly use more media to target audiences.As such, primary campaigns might elicit negative attitudes toward the electoral process and negative affective states such as boredom or disgust that in turn might make a person not turn out to vote.The levels of media dependenceIn the MSD view, the media system has two-way resource-dependency relations with individuals (micro-level), groups and organizations (meso-level), and other social systems (macro-level).The microlevel(individual level) of dependencyMicrolevel, or individual level application focus on the relationship between individuals and media.The microlevel dependency, better known as individu al level media system dependency(IMD)begins with an assessment of the types of motivation that bring individuals to use the media. In the perspective of IMD, goals are preferred to needs to conceptualize the motivations that affect media behavior. According to Ball-Rokeach and DeFleur, goals are the key dimension of individual motivation. While needs imply both rational and irrational motives, goals imply a problem-solving motivation more appropriate to a theory of media behavior based upon the dependency relation.Three types of motivational goalsThe IMD approach provides a comprehensive conceptualization of three motivational goals:understanding, orientation, and play. 1) Understanding- needs for individuals to have a basic understanding of themselves and the world around them. 2) Orientation- needs for individuals to direct personal actions effectively and interact successfully with others. 3) play(or recreation)- a way through which one learns roles, norms, and values and its ref lected in such activities as sport, dance, and celebration.The macrolevel of dependencyEvery country's media system is interdependent on the country's other social systems (e. g. , its economy, its government) for resources, and vice-versa. At the macrolevel, dependency theory states these interrelationships influence what kinds of media products are disseminated to the public for consumption, and the range of possible uses people have for media.Media and Economic SystemThe media depend on a society's economic system for 1) inculcation andÃ reinforcement of free enterprise values, 2) establishing and maintaining linkages between producers and sellers, and 3) controlling and winning internal conflicts, such as between management and unions. In turn, the media is dependent on a society's economic system for 1) profit from advertising revenue, 2) technological developments that reduce costs and compete effectively with other media outlets, and 3) expansion via access to banking and f inance services, as well as international trade.Media and Political SystemA society's media and political system are also heavily interdependent.Ã Political system rely on the media to 1) inculcate and reinforce political values and norm such as freedom, voting, or obedience to the law, 2) maintain order and social integration, 3) organize and mobilize citizens to carry out essential activities like waging war, and 4) controlling and winning conflicts that develop within political domains (e. g. , Watergate). Conversely, the media rely on a country's political system for judicial, executive, and legislative protection, formal and informal resources required to cover the news, and revenue that comes from political advertising and subsidies.Media and Secondary SystemsTo a lesser extent, media has established interdependencies with several other social systems. The family is dependent on media for inculcation and reinforcement of family values, recreation and leisure, coping with eve ryday problems of child rearing, marriage, and financial crises. On the other hand, the media is dependent on the family for consuming their media products. The same is true of media and religious systems. Religious systems rely on media for inculcation and reinforcement of religious values, transmitting religious messages to the masses, and successfully competing with other religious or nonreligious philosophies.In turn, the media relies on the religious system to attain profits from religious organizations who purchase space or air time. The educational system in a society relies on media for value inculcation and reinforcement, waging successful conflicts or struggles for scarce resources, and knowledge transmission such as in educational media programming. Media depends on the educational system for access to expert information and being able to hire personnel trained in the educational system.Finally, the military system depends on the media for value inculcation and reinforcem ent, waging and winning conflicts, and specific organizational goals such as recruitment and mobilization. The media, in turn, depends on the military for access to insider or expert information. The consequences of all of these interdependencies, again, are alterations in media products that audiences consume. In this way, the system-level interdependencies control media products, the range of possible social uses for media, the extent to which audiences depend on the media to fulfill needs, and ultimately media effects on audiences.Individual differences due to demographics or personality traits might change what people actually do with media messages or how they interpret media messages, but the messages always begin as the result of interdependent social systems.A comparison of use and gratification theory and media system dependency theoryBall-Rokeach summarized the major differences between uses and gratification (U&G)theory and media system dependency(MSD) theory.Conception o f audience membersBoth U &G and MSD theorists view the audience member as active, but the basic conceptions of the audience member differ.Ã U&G theorists focus on psychological and sociodemographic origins of differences in media use. In this perspective, the variability of text interpretation suggests an audience member in charge of the text. MSD theorists focus on psychological, interpersonal, and sociological origins of differences in micro MSD relations as well as the macro MSD relations that constrain media text production and individualÃ¢â¬â¢s MSD relations. The responsiveness of micro MSD relations to environmental conditions and the ecological constraints on media production and consumption are important features.In this perspective, the audience member is neither in charge of the text nor controlled by the text. The only way we can predict the effects is the audiencesÃ¢â¬â¢ MSD relations in context of the ecology of macro relations.Conception of interpersonal networks and communicationU&G theorists emphasize the role of interpersonal communication in the distortion of media messages and of networks as interpretive communities. In this conception, interpersonal networks are regarded as a safety way against the cultural apparatus of the media and its partners.They believe that the interpersonal network contributes to individual Ã¢â¬Å"agency,Ã¢â¬ and the Ã¢â¬Å"networkedÃ¢â¬ individual is empowered to manipulate media texts, not to be manipulated by them. The MSD conception is compatible with the U&G conception up to a point. Consistent with MSD conceptions of the individual member of the active media audience, the interpersonal networks play major roles in MSD theory. They link the individual to public and they link and influence the nature of the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s relations with the media system.Conception of the Media system and of media powerU&G theorists in the psychological tradition think of the media system as creators of tentative texts subject to multiple reconstructions. In this perspective, the media system is functional to the extent that it is useful or affords ways for individuals to gratify needs. The MSD conception is closer to a macro functionalist version of U&G. MSD shares the macro functionalistsÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢ view of the mediaÃ¢â¬â¢s interdependence with other social and cultural system. In this view, the function of media is seen as a key structure for vertical and horizontal integration of society.The MSD viewpoints seem to be even closer to cultural studies traditions in that the central concern for structural relations of control over information resources that generate the power to create social realities and to negotiate social conflict and social change.Methods of observation, analysis, and interpretationAlthough both U&G and MSD researchers ask similar questions of individuals, they do so for very different reasons. Those differences are reflected most clearly in (a) the logics of hy pothesis formation (b) item and scale construction (c) modes of data analysis, and (d) interpretation of findings.The MSD researcher essentially wants to know the micro and macro determinants of stability and change in micro MSD relations to learn something about their cross-level consequences for individuals and their interpersonal networks-the dynamics of their inner worlds and how they live in their social worlds. The U&G theorist wants to learn something about the individual's attraction to media texts and the interaction between text and reader to better understand the contributions of reader characteristics to text processing.The differences between micro U&G and micro MSD are, thus, in their epistemological origins, assumptions, concepts, and missions. Criticisms Baran and Davis identify four primary criticisms of dependency theory: 1) Variability in microlevel and macrolevel measurement makes between-study comparability problematic. 2) The theory is often difficult to empirically verify. 3) The meaning and power of dependency is sometimes unclear. 4) Dependency theory lacks power in explaining long-term effects.
Friday, August 16, 2019
Percent Composition Report Hypothesis: By using seperation techniques properly, the 3 substance such as; water, sand, and salt can be seperated and the percent composition of each substance. Which will then be calculated theoritically and after comparison with the actual result, the accuracy of the 2 result can be found. Aim: The aim of this experiment is to compare the gravimetric result of the original mixture and the separated substance. The other objective is to calculate each percent composition of the substance that was in the mixture.Introduction: Percent composition is about calculating the percentage of a specific substance in a mixture or compound. It is used mostly to calculate the percentage of an element in a compound using moles. To find percent composition in a mixture, the first thing need to be done is by using separation technique to separate the substances. In this experiment, by knowing that salt is soluble in water and salt do not, determining the technique that is to be used is not a difficulty anymore.Finding composition is also important in daily lives, such as finding impurities in a material such as gold. People have found that most golds are not completely composed of gold, but it is also composed of other elements which becomes an alloy. It involves basic mathematical calculation, but the percentage that is found can be beneficial for the researcher depending on his intentions on what to do with it. Materials: -Mixtures of sand and salt -Aquades -Filter paper Ã¢â¬â Filter tunnel -Filtration apparatus -Stirer -Wired gauze -Beaker Procedure:The beaker, evaporating disk, filter paper, and the mixture is weighted using the provided equipment -Water is then added into the mixture which was in the beaker -The whole mixture that was poured by water is stired -The equipments for filtration was prepared -The mixture was poured to the filter paper and was allowed to be filtered -The sand residue was taken to the heater device to be heated o vernight -Equipments for the evaporation process is prepared beforehand -The filtrate was then heated, resulting only the salt as the water evaporizes -The sand was then weighted after a night Results : Object name Mass (grams) Beaker 60Beaker + Mixtures 86. 3 Beaker + Mixtures+Water 102. 7 Water 16. 4 Mixtures 26. 3 Filter paper 0. 5 Evaporating disk 34. 8 Crystallized Salt 0. 87 Analysis : Sand + salt + water = 25. 74 grams % composition: % of salt: % of sand: % of Water : Discussions: -Gravimetric analysis can only be applied on the experiment if it involves mearusing the mass of the objects or substances that are used in the process -The cause of inaccuracy in this experiment could be the wrong measurement of the water added, the salt substance that didnÃ¢â¬â¢t get soluted by the water because of the amount of the salt is more that the solubility rate of water can take. avoid inaccuracy in the records, precise measurements of every single thing is required, concentration on th e process, and correct mathematical calculations. Conclusion: Even if the inaccuracy of the gravimetric analysis is inevitable, the percent composition that can be pulled through the calculation gives us a better picture of how much each substance is in a mixture. Correct separation techniques are also used, which means separation process affects the result greatly.
The Canadian Tire Corporation (CTC) was initiated in 1922 when two brothers opened an auto parts store and garage in Toronto, Canada. From 1922 to 2003, their organization grew into a much larger network of businesses, including retail, financial services, and petroleum operations (Haggerty, 2003). There was 45,000 employees working at the various CVC businesses across Canada, and more than 1,000 stores and gas bars. As stated in the reading, CTC businesses were actually comprised into five groups including the following: Canadian Tire Retail, Canadian Tire Financial Services, Candida Tire Petroleum, PartSource, and MarkÃ¢â¬â¢s Work Wearhouse. Initially, this group of businesses used numerous different hardware, software, operating systems, network services, development tools, and applications. As explained in the reading, the systems at Canadian Tire Retail included POS (point-of sales) systems which were networked to the Canadian Tire Retail data center. The systems at MarkÃ¢â¬â¢s Work Wearhouse, on the other hand, operated differently and remained separate from the other CTC corporations. While Canadian Tire Retail ran IBM-AS/400 systems in stores, CTFS utilized IBM RS6000 with Intel-Based workstations. PartSource and Canadian Tire PetroleumÃ¢â¬â¢s daily transactions were relayed directly into the corporate network from their point-of-sale systems. The Canadian Tire CorporationÃ¢â¬â¢s IT department operated and supported over a hundred different mainframe, server, desktop development and integration tools, ten different hardware platforms, 14 operating systems, seven database management systems, and over 450 different production applications. Much of the systems were described as Ã¢â¬Å"nicheÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"sunsetÃ¢â¬ technologies indicating outdated and inefficient technology. For this reason, and others, IT spending at CTC was considerably higher than the industry standard, and this would only continue to grow. It was necessary for Canadian Tire Corporation to develop an integrated data warehouse system. There were many key individuals whose roles were essential in the shift to developing a new MODULE 2: COURSE PROJECT BUSINESS REQUIREMENTS 3 strategy for Canadian Tire Corporation. Perhaps the most crucial role was that of Andy Wnek, Chief Information Officer/Chief Financial Officer. Wnek led the strategic plan in 2002 (and going forward) to develop the first IT strategy document in many years. Michael Eubanks was hired as Director of Marketing IT which came with the responsibility of creatively partnering more with Canadian Tire Retail. Bridget Martens was assigned as Business Intelligence Manager in early 2003. She was given the responsibility of coordinating the business intelligence program as it began. These individuals played key roles in the development of the business intelligence initiative at Canadian Tire Corporation. The implementation of a data warehouse involved laying out a vision to be Ã¢â¬Å"an agile IT team, aligned to business priorities, operating a simpler technical environment with the appropriate standardized processesÃ¢â¬ (Haggerty, 2003). In order to achieve this vision, many requirements were necessary to move forward. First of all, Canadian Tire RetailÃ¢â¬â¢s image had historically reflected that of a wholesaler, and the IT group had the challenge of changing this image to that of a retailer, rather than a wholesaler. In order to do this, the team realized that more data was necessary in order to analyze data as a retailer. They were required to look at data on a more analytical basis, analyzing the product, store, and margin trends (Haggerty, 2003). In order to do this, the IT group built the IW in which data was extracted, transformed, and loaded from a variety of sources. This was the essence of building the data warehouse: to consolidate the date into one main system where the information could be analyzed to help form critical business decisions. Additionally, three imperative requirements were identified during the IT strategy 2003. These included the requirements of: becoming better aligned to the business to support strategic and operational priorities and adaptability to changing business priorities, controlling costs through simplifying the technical architecture, improving productivity, and controlling expenses, and implementing governance of IT resources including standardization, risk management, and MODULE 2: COURSE PROJECT BUSINESS REQUIREMENTS 4 developing/implementing sustainable processes. The requirements laid out in this vision actually prompted the development of four programs from the periods of 2003 to 2005. The first program involved implementing a CIO governance program. The second program, provided Ã¢â¬Å"organizational and people capabilitiesÃ¢â¬ (Haggerty, 2003) and specified key services that the IT group would need to be able to support to the organization. The third involved process improvements which helped to organize an annual IT strategy planning process. The fourth program involved technological direction which Ã¢â¬Å"laid the foundation for re-architecting the organizationÃ¢â¬ (Haggerty, 2003). The areas of business intelligence and data management, application deployment, integration and messaging, standardization and simplification, and security deployment were five areas that required immediate attention. For this reason, these areas also serve as requirements for the data warehouse and business intelligence initiatives to take place. Canadian Tire Corporation is an example of a company in distress whose current architecture and infrastructures did not suffice for longevity and success. The case study further details the journey of CTC, along with its web of networked businesses, as it attempted to change business strategy in an effort to create a more enhanced system of data warehousing and business intelligence. MODULE 2: COURSE PROJECT BUSINESS REQUIREMENTS 5 References Haggerty, N. & Meister, D. (2003). Business Intelligence Strategy at Canadian Tire [Case Study]. Ivey Management Services.
Thursday, August 15, 2019
War has always been a companion of man and a part of human existence. In the human history only few years have been absolutely peaceful when all peoples of the globe lived in friendship or at least without conflicts. Already the fist weapons, invented by man, could be used as weapons of war. So war can be called an attribute of humans same as mind, or ability to walk on two legs. A question whether war is caused by inborn or social determinants is, perhaps, as old as history. Once more it has been addressed by Margaret Meade in her Ã¢â¬Å"Warfare: An Invention Ã¢â¬â Not a Biological NecessityÃ¢â¬ . She argues, that primitive indigenous societies have no idea of warfare and puts in the Eskimos as example. So she believes, that war is a matter of social existence and humans have invented war in the course history just as they invented a wheel. Under Meade, humans have no inborn tendency to war and there are no objective factors for a war to arise. War as she puts it, is a method invented to resolve conflicts, equal to other conflicts resolution methods such as courts and negotiations. This paper is to contest such position and prove, that war is in fact in the nature of man and it is inevitable for man, so it is impossible to speak of war as of invention. It will review some of MeadeÃ¢â¬â¢s arguments and evaluate them using academic papers, that disagree with MeadÃ¢â¬â¢s position. The final thesis of the paper is that WAR IN HUMAN SOCIETIES IS PRECONDITIONED BY BIOLOGICAL AND SOCIAL DETERMINANTS. War her can not be compared to other methods of conflict resolution, because it is not, or at least not only a method to resolve conflicts. War is a phenomena which exists as itself and does not result from necessity to cope with certain misunderstanding. References to some fragments of MeadÃ¢â¬â¢s paper shall be used in forming arguments against her theory. First and foremost it is necessary to determine the subject and find out what is war. Meade offers the following definition: Ã¢â¬Å"organized conflict between two groups as groups, in which each group puts an army (even if the army is only fifteen Pygmies) in the field to fight and kill, if possible, some of the members of the army of the other groupÃ¢â¬ . The key word here is Ã¢â¬Å"conflictÃ¢â¬ . War is usually defined as an organized form of conflicts between groups. Usually such groups are represented by societies or communities, most often by peoples and nations. In his brilliant Ã¢â¬Å"War Before CivilizationÃ¢â¬ professor Lawrence H. Keeley has calculated that 90-95% of peoples communities were once engaged to war in this or that way and many of them fought constantly . Whether war has been invented or not, those numbers suggest, that war is more usual than peace for humans. And all those wars have been caused by conflicts. In this respect war is a result of conflict and itÃ¢â¬â¢s embodiment but not the conflict itself. So, in order to find out what war is it is necessary to find out what conflict is and what causes it. For this paper we shall use the following definition: conflict is a discord between needs interests and values of people or between interests, needs and values of a person and the surrounding . War is a conflict between groups, so in this paper we shall speak mostly about conflicts between people, although it is often impossible to clearly distinguish them. At that terms Ã¢â¬Å"warÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"conflictÃ¢â¬ should not be confused, because in this paper we accept that war is not a form of conflict. War is not a discord itself, it is a result of discord, which is going to be discussed later. Scholars have proposed a number of theories to explain reasons of conflict resulting in war. They include psychological, evolutionary, sociological, anthropological, rationalist and other ones. Advocates of psychological theories such as E. F. M. Durban and John Bowlby argue that violence is inherited by man. The society oppresses violence as an inacceptable form of behavior. So war is an Ã¢â¬Å"outlet valveÃ¢â¬ for natural human violence. In order to justify natural violence people use to invent ideologies as causes for war. Some of the Ã¢â¬Å"militaristsÃ¢â¬ even argue that peace does not exist at all and that what seems to be peace is nothing but a preparation to the next war period . Historical theories explain that wars result from certain conditions and are similar to traffic accidents. However, there are no rules to limit them and no system to predict them. However, social scientists criticize those theories stating that in most wars there are leaders who take a final decision about war, so wars can not be recognized purely accidental . However, it can be noticed, that decisions of leaders are taken mostly as a result of certain events and warlike leaders can hardly make people go to war, if they are strongly against fighting. Anthropological theorists, which Margaret Meade stands most close to, argue that war has appeared at some stage of civilization development, so war is culturally learned. Anthropologists reject the presence of links between different forms of violence, so war can not be compared to fighting animals or similar conflicts. War under the result of popular pressure, but it is caused exclusively by violent leaders . However, a question arises once again. If war is not in nature of man, how does war come to the nature of a leader? Sociologists have been interested in war since the early years of sociology, so they have developed their own sociological theories. Eckart Kehr and Hans-Ulrich Wehler pointed that war is a result of internationalized inner tensions inside the society, and the target for aggression is determined by international situation. So the basis for war is economic, political and social situation inside a community. In contrast, Carl von Clausewitz and Leopold von Ranke, who are also said to be advocates of sociological theories, argue, that war results from decision of statesmen, who react to certain situation in this or that way . This argument stands close to anthropological approach. There are several demographic theories about war. Malthusian theories speak that wars are caused by disproportion between growing population and lack of resources for this population. To solve the problem the community starts an expansion which results in war with the neighbors. Youth Bulge theory is more sophisticated. Under it, when a society includes a number of young and physically able young males who canÃ¢â¬â¢t find an occupation for themselves inside the community, those young men will fight for fortune outside the community . This phenomenon can be easily found in medieval Europe, where younger sons of the nobility had to leave their fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s estate, which must have been inherited only by the older son. No difference how they called themselves Ã¢â¬â Vikings, Crusaders or conquistadors, they went to distant lands to make war. Most of them just died, thusly solving the problem of Ã¢â¬Å"younger sonsÃ¢â¬ , and some of them did receive a reward in form of money, new lands and glory. Evolutionary psychology theories see war as a result of evolving psychological features, including fear of being attacked and beliefs that only war can make people happy or ensure their future. This includes fear, that another group of people can be dangerous, that another group can be provoked to conflict, assertion, that other group is immoral or sinful or inherently evil, so it should be punished. Under this theory, the decision to make war can hardly be rational, and is often taken out of fear or hate . The rationalist theories assume, that both sides of conflicts have potential reasons for war which can be understood and logically predicted. Each side strives to obtain the best possible result with minimal losses. In case both parties could reasonably predict the outcome it would be better for them just to accept the results of war without suffering itÃ¢â¬â¢s losses. War requires both sides to accept risk. In case the desire to fight a war is stronger than fear of risk, the war is likely to emerge. Entering the war each party needs to evaluate itÃ¢â¬â¢s readiness to attack and itÃ¢â¬â¢s readiness to be attacked. Under the economic theories war results from economic competition and in peruse for new markets and natural resources. Another possible reason is defense of existing markets and trade roots. And thirdly a war may be caused by the desire of poor countries to benefit from plundering the rich countries . Other schools include Marxist and political science theories, however, their concepts of war remain undeveloped. It should be noted, that a single theory of war can hardly be created. Each particular war is explained by itÃ¢â¬â¢s own reasons. Colonial wars are explained by economic theories, and the conquests of Genghis Khan fall under anthropological and demographic theories. An overview has been provided not to choose the best theory, but to find out how each theory supports or contradicts the thesis of Margaret Meade and the thesis of this paper. Meade argues, that since there are peoples, which are unfamiliar with the idea of war itself, even defensive war, it is necessary to speak of war as invention. She states that: Ã¢â¬Å"The CASE FOR warfare is much clearer because there are peoples even today who have no warfare. Of these the Eskimos are perhaps the most conspicuous examples, but the Lepchas of Sikkim described by Geoffrey Gorer in Himalayan Village are as good. Neither of these peoples understands war, not even defensive warfare. The idea of warfare is lacking, and this idea is as essential to really carrying on war as an alphabet or a syllabary is to writingÃ¢â¬ . Under Meade, war is s ort of response to particular events in peoples tradition. War is a traditional way of settling conflicts in most of the world, and for some people it is not a traditional method, so they just do not know what is war. MeadeÃ¢â¬â¢s point appears to be vague simply because of lack of actual evidence. She speaks, that some people do not know about war, but the only people she manages to demonstrate as proof are the Eskimos. Perhaps it is not a proof, but an exception that proves the opposite argument. And the argument is, that all peoples fight war, except for Eskimos, and this means, that Eskimos are unusual and they break a common rule. And the common rule is that war is an attribute of man. The described theories summarize different factors, but in total it should be concluded, that war is a response to the situation of conflict. This conflict can be demographic (lack of territory for the population), economic (fighting for markets) or evolutional (hate to others). Of course, there is an anthropological theory, which asserts, that for some reason peoples, which are originally peaceful, suddenly start to support violent leaders, but this theory fails to explain the reasons for such support and origin of violent leaders themselves. All the reasons for war mentioned in the theories reflect usual human reactions to conflicts. When a person has nothing to eat, he or she is likely to steal. When an entire people has nothing to eat, it will fight for food with the neighbors. When a person believes, that his neighbor is an awful criminal, he or she is likely to attack the neighbor in case he approaches, even if he came to say Ã¢â¬Å"helloÃ¢â¬ . When an entire people believes, that other people is insane, a war between those peoples is likely to emerge. This analogy can be applied to each and every theory. In the light of this it is necessary to specially consider new sorts of war: economic war and terrorist war. Economic wars are ideally explained by economic theories. They are fought for resources and markets. However, they include unfriendly actions and acts of violence. They may have casualties. So they are wars fought in other way. Terroristic wars are even more obvious case. They are fought under instructions of charismatic leaders and with concrete purposes, explained by theories of war. Reasons for the new sorts of war are same as for the old ones. They are results of conflicts. Upon separation of conflict and the resulting war, war becomes characterized as a response to the conflict. When groups of people find no other acceptable way to resolve the conflict, they turn to war. And the more organized the community is, the more organized itÃ¢â¬â¢s warfare is. This conflict is violent, because human nature is violent. This means not that violence is necessary for a man, but that violence is available for a man, and man often uses violence. It is just a part of our nature, whether we want it or not. In case it was not true, there would not be no fights of the streets and wars between peoples. But it is true, and non-violence in the society is more unusual, than violence. As soon as it is understood, that war is a VIOLENT METHOD OF RESOLVING CONFLICTS BETWEEN GROUPS OF PEOPLE it becomes obvious, that war is a natural state for a man. It has not been invented, it existed just as long, as man existed. The war took more complex forms, but it remained war. This does not mean, that wars are desirable, surely they are to be avoided at all costs. But even in case all wars are once finished this would not mean, that the war disappears. It will just not be used, but it will continue to exist inside us. Works cited: 1. Margaret Meade, Warfare is only an invention Ã¢â¬â not a biological necessity. Taken from: http://www. ppu. org. uk/learn/infodocs/st_invention. html (last viewed: October 16, 2007)2. Lawrence H. Keeley. War Before Civilization, Oxford University Press, 1996 3. Ashley Montagu, The Nature of Human Aggression, Oxford University Press, 1976 4. Azar Gat. War in Human Civilization, Oxford University Press, 2006 5. Fuller Gary: The Demographic Backdrop to Ethnic Conflict: A Geographic Overwiew, in: CIA (Ed. ): Ã¢â¬Å"The Challenge of Ethnic Conflict to National and International Order in the 1990sÃ¢â¬ , Washington 1995 6. Powell Robert. Bargaining Theory and International Conflict. Annual Review of Political Science 5: 1-30, 2002