Monday, September 30, 2019

Discipline Problem Among Teenagers in College Essay

Every education center has their own rules as well as our college. The rules made to ensure our college system run smoothly. As a student, we must follow the rules but not violate it. We should be a role model to the next batch. Unfortunately, there are many discipline problem occurred in the first semester only such as skip class, sneak out, smoking, coupling and others. As we know, college students are the chosen one to continue their study in higher level of education after exam. But, our college still have various discipline problems that need to be minimizes. The meaning of discipline is a training expected to produce a specific character or pattern of behaviour especially training that produces moral or mental improvement. Based on the definition, we know that students in college has high standard education environment and have strict rules too. But, why does discipline problem still happen in our college? Why does this excellent student still make a discipline problem? Don’t they think that discipline problem that they make will affect their future? That’s why we want to investigate whether excellent students have fewer discipline problems or not. In our research, we have three main objectives that we will tag along until end of this project. The first main objective is to know whether excellent student has high discipline problem or not. Secondly, what is the most popular discipline problem in our college. Lastly, which gender has the higher discipline problem. Based on our research, we want to find out why does the students still make discipline problem instead obey the rules and what encourage them to make discipline problem. As we all, students of college, living in a hostel without no one guides us like at home, we tend to make mistake without knowing it as a discipline problem and we easier to be influence by our friends. That’s why we need to think other suitable method to solve the problem or at least minimize the number of discipline problem in our college that is after we done doing this research. After the exam result announced, we knew that excellent students would definitely stayed in this college. That’s why we will give our questionnaires to random students. Hence, we assume that excellent students have less record of discipline problem.

Sunday, September 29, 2019

Marketing Definition Essay

Definition The process of defining and subdividing a large homogenous market into clearly identifiable segments having similar needs, wants, or demand characteristics. Its objective is to design a marketing mix that precisely matches the expectations of customers in the targeted segment. Few companies are big enough to supply the needs of an entire market; most must breakdown the total demand into segments and choose those that the company is best equipped to handle. Four basic factors that affect market segmentation are (1) clear identification of the segment, (2) measurability of its effective size, (3) its accessibility through promotional efforts, and (4) its appropriateness to the policies and resources of the company. The four basic market segmentation-strategies are based on (a) behavioral (b) demographic, (c) psychographic, and (d) geographical differences. Read more: http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/market-segmentation.html#ixzz2ImOtX3b8 Do you think that it was a good segmentation for M&M’s to develop a new version targeting adults? In observing how M&M’s have changed over time from the addition of peanut butter and almonds to the changing of colors and sizes I think that was a great segmentation strategy to develop a new version targeting adults. The new line of M&M’s is 55 percent larger in size and they come in colors that are appealing to adults in its design (Schiffman & Kanuk, 2007). According to spokeswoman Joan Buyce of Masterfoods USA this creation is designed with adults in mind and â€Å"It broadens our portfolio so there’s something for everyone† (M&M’s get mega-sized, 2012, p.1). Buyce also states that the new M&M’s are available in milk chocolate as well as peanut varieties and come with an adult-oriented color scheme which includes teal, beige, gold, maroon, brown and blue-gray (M&M’s get mega-sized, 2012). Due to the new line of M&M’s including aspects that target adults I think that it is a great segmentation strategy because appealing aspects are included in the development of the new version. Discuss three basic types of research of design (exploratory, descriptive and casual). The three basic types of designs are exploratory, descriptive and casual research. In the explorative research there is systematic and flexible and allows the researcher to investigate desires (Marketing Research Design, 2012). Explorative research is also most commonly unstructured, informal research that is undertaken to gain background information about the general nature of the research problem (Marketing Research Design, 2012). While descriptive research describes and measure marketing phenomena at a point in time (Marketing Research Design, 2012). This type of research is classified as a cross sectional study, because it is a one-time measurement, which is established in market research, outnumbering longitudinal studies and casual studies (Marketing Research Design, 2012). Casual research is†¦ [continues]

Saturday, September 28, 2019

Criminology dissertation literature review Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Criminology dissertation - Literature review Example Furthermore, it has also been stated that during the criminal treatment, the rape victims are often prejudged and ill-treated. The research of Fawcett Society (2007) stated that in the UK, at least 47,000 adult females are raped every year and according to public approach towards female rape victims, 34% of public consider that the victims are partially or completely liable for being raped as they behaved in flirtatious manner. In a society, it is usually accepted that public have a tendency to perceive victim of rape in somewhat negative manner. People basically observe world as just a place where misfortune happens only to those who earn them. This statement reflects that in several rape circumstances, the incidence is described by considering the situation where victim should have done something in order to evade being victimised. Several researchers have identified that in rape case, victims are regarded as sole initiator of their victimisation (Hart & et. al., 2007). According to Wolfgang (1958), victims’ direct and instantaneous action often leads to misfortune. In rape based action, several authors disputed that victim’s characteristic matter more in comparison to their activities. According to Frederick (1987), factors such as victim’s class, background, image of decency and physical appeal have certain impact on crime liability. Workman & Freeburg (1999) also stated that femal e victim’s physical attractiveness, sexual appetites, degree of intemperance and dress pattern can influence negative ascription in female victimisation. Belknap (1996) noted that the institutional beliefs in gender role stereotyping influence the rape case proceedings in present century. Literally, a woman who appealed to be a victim of rape is treated with doubt. Any past sexual activity on her side is believed to weaken the truth of her claim and as practical matter reduce her right to control the characteristics of her sexual

Friday, September 27, 2019

Issues and their implications for AVE Practitioners Essay

Issues and their implications for AVE Practitioners - Essay Example The rather unexpected revelation indicates that there is indeed an insufficiency for the provision of decent adult and vocational education. To try to solve the issue, many countries responded by installing frameworks that will cater and monitor the ongoing education of adults that is suited to fill to the emerging needs of a rapidly diversifying global market. Policies concerning adult and vocational education are being made and they are hoped to address this issue. There is much fanfare generated by the survey and is leading to many changes or introduction of innovative ideas for AVE. In my chosen field of AVE education, the issue now is that how is my career be affected in light of the developments in social and economic scenes. To be sure, my field can surely be affected and it is in this matter that I try to examine in this paper. It is undeniable that AVE education is considering that most adults would like to achieve career mobility. It even becomes more important as intercultural interactions make the scene competitive as Australia open its doors to immigrants to ensure it has enough skilled workforce that its aging population can provide. Perhaps the foremost question now is how recent events can define or affect the future of Adult and Vocational Education program. Is there a need to be concerned with the trends in the teaching workforce condition in the local scene According to McKenna and Fitzpatrick in their 2004 paper "Building sustainable adult literacy provision", Australia has been characterized before by a minimal amount of opportunities for literacy instructors for professional development due to lack of clear training and career pathways. There was a lack of support and necessary information to determine the needs of literacy instructors in teaching adults. The situation has increasingly improved, however, as Australia made changes to address this issue. The enthusiasm that characterizes the development of the literacy programs by the Australian authorities is actually a recent development. According to McKenzie and Kirkpatrick (2004), Australia has been the one who lag the most in response to the results of the International Adult Literacy Survey while other countries have proactively formulated and enacted reforms. Curtain (2008) suggests that the reason for this may be due to inclination of the Australian government to a certain type of approach to innovation. According to Curtain (2008), there are two approaches that governments tend to follow in spurring innovation. The first one is founded in the principle that market competition and forces could generate innovative ideas on their own. On the other end of the spectrum is the approach that operates in the principle that enterprise rarely innovates alone and the government should proactively formulate a national innovation system. In this approach, a network is established betwee n skilled personnel, government research and enterprises. Curtain, in his paper, argues that Australia tends to use the first approach. While other countries such as Finland and Singapore have developed from a humbling beginning, Australia had been left behind. Having this in mind, Australian authorities have stepped up efforts to improve literacy rates. Efforts to provide a federally recognized

Thursday, September 26, 2019

The Dreams by Naguib Mahfouz Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

The Dreams by Naguib Mahfouz - Essay Example â€Å"The Dreams† is an example of a collection of short stories that professionally depict the social, economic, and political lives of Egypt through a list of short dreams, designed and narrated by Naguib Mahfouz. First published in 2000, the collection of 104 dreams reflects many of Mahfouz’s hopes and expectations for the kind of life that is better to prevail in Egypt in the new millennium. After a deep and long experience in writing, Mahfouz wanted to end his writing career by publishing his views, ideas, and thoughts in a form of dreams that reflect his vision for the future of Egypt. These dreams are rich and varied, containing Mahfouz’s night-thoughts and elaborate scenes. In most of these dreams, Mahfouz recalls people, scenes and situations from his earlier life, making nice connections to the present and the future, which Mahfouz looks for. â€Å"The Dreams† makes it clear that Mahfouz is a prolific writer as he produced a great number of novel s and short stories that discuss a variety of issues related to his society and environment. The greatness of Mahfouz as a novelist and story teller does not only lie in his professionalism in writing, but also in his success in giving clear pictures of the social, economic, and political lives in the Arab world. And Middle East. This success stems from his closeness to all the social classes and understanding of their problems and sufferings. For example, in many of the novels that are written by Naguib Mahfouz, he depicts the Egyptian streets and allies in a way that is very close to reality. Even in â€Å"the Dreams,† Mahfouz’s closeness to his social surroundings is recurrently reflected in the various details of the scenes he depicts and the characters he portrays. In the collection of the dreams that are professionally drawn by Mahfouz, the author’s sense of self is uniquely interwoven with his views about the surrounding social circumstances that dominate d Egypt during the time of publishing the collection. This evolving sense of self for Mahfouz is clearly revealed by the changes to the houses that fill his dreams. For example, the recurrent appearance of a certain woman in his dreams may represent his old soul mate or lover, from a psychological perspective. Taking dream number 29, for instance, we view Mahfouz in a conversation with his literary cohorts, when he mentions a female writer he esteems. In this dream, the reader can easily feel Mahfouz’s annoyance when he listens to his companions, criticizing the woman’s social pretensions and depravity. This annoyance of Mahfouz is clearly reflected in his quick exit from the scene, and then he meets another woman in the elevator after he leaves. While talking with him about false friendship, this woman suddenly robs Mahfouz at gunpoint. These beautifully-designed scenes in one dream reflect Mahfouz’s talent in sending numerous positive messages via eloquently-b uilt small paragraphs. In this context, the reader of Mahfouz’s dreams may find them luminous and optimistic, in addition to their being shimmering with vitality. Hence, the reader of Mahfouz’s dreams should be aware that those dreams, for the author, are not mere psychological reflections on events and people from the past; rather, these dreams are masterfully used as a fertile ground for a literary

Tesla roadster Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words

Tesla roadster - Essay Example These resources are brought together under leadership. This activity all operates under the constraints of time. There are agreed upon rules for the orderly functioning of society. These rules are enforceable. An example is the inventory that is gasoline. There must be rules for safety. Different jurisdictions will have somewhat different guidelines. The end result will be the same. A thing is never responsible for an action or in action. This reality of action is at the heart of the benefits and responsibilities of ownership. This law aspect sets the parameters for all that will follow in the decision making process. This gives the choice of having a proprietorship or partnership. Or we may choose to have a corporation. The corporation may be public or it may be private. This legal arrangement sets the tone for the inflow of finance and economics. Finance is the glue that makes business possible. This area deals with the management of funds. Inventory results in the use of funds to acquire it. In finance there is the added requirement of insurance. This is a protection of funds in the event of loss. This area deals with the management of scarce resources. There are limited human resources. There is limited funds and space. The products for sale are limited. Of course there is a time limit. The business has to operate with a view to accounting periods. The inventory itself is a scarce resource. There are many approaches. One of them is to consider the flow of money as made up of four parts. There is the flow to land as rent, then the flow to labor as wages, next is the flow to capital as interest and finally the flow to entrepreneurship as profits. Another approach is to consider the business activities with five segments. There is finance, marketing, production, labor and research and development. This is a popular and in many cases very helpful when considering business activity.

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

Pregnancy and Child Bearing Practices of People of Mexican Culture Assignment

Pregnancy and Child Bearing Practices of People of Mexican Culture - Assignment Example aditions play a critical role in determining what a pregnant woman does and whether she can seek conventional healthcare specifically prenatal and antenatal care. This paper will discuss the pregnancy and childbearing practices of the Mexican people. According to the American statistics, Mexican Americans registered a birthrate of 24.3% in 2007. Notably, the Mexican Americans have registered increasing birthrates over the years. In the Mexican culture, multiple births are a normal aspect of life. The financially unstable groups have a view that having a high number of children serves as evidence of their virility. Women begin the childbearing process between the ages of 19 and 24. The Mexican culture has numerous fertility practices, specifically linked to their Catholic religion. Women in the Mexican culture consider prolonged breastfeeding as a strategy of controlling birth. Therefore, women are less likely to use contraceptives in an effort to plan their families. The perception of the Mexican people towards abortion is that it is morally wrong and is only permissible if the mother’s life is at risk. However, with the increasing acculturation to the American mainstream culture, some parts of Mexico have continuously pr acticed abortion. Notably, the Catholic religion, which has a critical influence on the Mexican culture, does not forbid the use of contraceptives (Barragan et al., 2011, p. 615). Therefore, women can choose to use contraceptives instead of relying on prolonged breastfeeding. However, some forms of birth control practices such as the use of female condoms and creams do not have a place in the Mexican culture. The Mexican culture is highly selective on the most appropriate contraceptives that women can use. Notably, Mexicans believe that women should not touch their private parts, hence they consider the use of female condoms against their culture. Birth control pills also receive a negative perception in the Mexican culture. Mexicans view

Monday, September 23, 2019

Philosophical discussion with a film Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Philosophical discussion with a film - Essay Example The creation of an ideal superman and the philosophy of fighting for the good fo all and even killing for the same despite all personal feelings comprise the final theme of the movie. The ending might be controversial in some respects but the paper will defend his actions apart from relating my personal feelings regarding the same. The superman shows us a controversial philosophy of dealing with injustice with a bold face and taking the toughest decision of killing for good. The very concept behind the creation of a superman lies in something greater than human. But greater than human in what way is the main concern, i.e. should a superman be born with a bigger and wiser outlook towards life? Do we want to see him as more physically powerful than normal human beings or more psychological strong or be extremely benevolent and kind hearted which we are not capable of. We see a superman in our eyes and in our ways. My idea of a superman is someone who is extremely powerful and can easil y kill but will not kill and show his power unnecessarily. The provocation to show his power should be extremely strong in order to actually pour out his strength and go for a killing. Here the superman fits this criteria perfectly well and kills for a reason bigger than personal benefit. So here the superman is kind hearted and shows personal feelings for the loss like other human beings but he knows what is good for the world and does exactly that without being concerned about his personal gains. It is important to give ample chance to the victim for rectifying his mistakes and the superhero did the same too unlike he ormal state laws where a criminal is arrested and might be shot down without giving a fair chance for correction. So he is above the conventions and reason of human law. At this point I believe the Man of Steel satisfies the audience psychologically in being the super hero. A true hero whom people can idolize and worship and most importantly learn from under similar circumstances. This summer we got the pleasure to satisfy our fantasy instinct through the hero of the superheroes none other than Superman. Though the title Man of Steel nowhere reflects any indications of Superman in it, but the title itself re-boots the idea of the mystery and re-imagination of the background within it. This movie is the idea of a new version of the ever imaginative Superman story. Director Zack Synder tried to unfold his imagination which audience wants to see in their real life. Now there are several questions which has been arrived. Critics have various points to rate a film. This gets a first critical view in the aspect that it shows superman in a totally different aspect. The major critic that took place is that superman here is very serious, conservative, always frustrated, chiseled and handsome but not interested in any kind of romantic affairs. He is always trying to defend the planet earth from the evil eyes of Krypton another imaginary planet from where actually superman belongs to. But as he became the son of the earth and got attached with the upbringing atmosphere he now took this as a duty to protect earth from any bad force. Many critics have complained about the movie that the movie has too much action which was not actually required. But according to my point of view I will say that though it was full of action but the use of the plot was good and effective. This is because I think the director wanted to

Sunday, September 22, 2019

North America Geography Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

North America Geography - Research Paper Example The Northern half of North America remains sparingly populated and covered largely by Canada, except by North East part occupied by Alaska. The central and southern sections of the North America continent are represented by Mexico, United States, as well as several states situated in Caribbean and Central America. Canada, Mexico, and the United States constitute most of North America’s land mass and share the continent with 34 other island countries in the Caribbean south of Mexico. The paper explores the physical, economic, cultural, and historical geography of North America. The physical geography of North America Physical features frequently impact on the manner in which people select to settle areas and utilize the land. Physical geography can be categorized into three core areas of emphasis, namely: climatology (weather patterns and climates); geomorphology (physiography and landforms); and, biogeography (fauna and flora). The surface physiography of any region draws huge influences by the underlying rock structure. Geologic evidence demonstrates that, from 200 million years, the continent of North America altered its course and started drifting away from Pangaea. The earliest recorded history of any civilization dates back 5,000 years ago (Meinig, 1989). The physical features of North America entail Northern section of the American Cordillera comprising of the geologically new Rocky Mountains (located in the west) and older Appalachian Mountains to the east. The North features several glacial lakes formed within the last glacial period such as the Great Lakes. North America’s prominent continental divide (the Great Divide) runs north and south via Rocky Mountains. The prominent watershed largely drains to the east including the Mississippi/Missouri, St. Lawrence that drains into the Atlantic, and Rio Grande, which drain into the Gulf of Mexico (Meinig, 1989). North America can be categorized into five major physiographic regions, namely: Can adian Shield; Appalachian Mountains; Atlantic Coastal Plain; North American Cordillera; and, Interior Lowlands. The Coastal Plain and the principal North American Cordillera belts largely extend to the south in Mexico to join the Transverse Volcanic Range (a region comprising of active volcanic peaks south of Mexico City. The biggest portion of North America rests on the North American Plate anchored on the Laurentia craton. Some sections of California and Western Mexico form the partial edge of the Pacific Plate, which meet along the San Andreas Fault while sections in the southern portion of the Caribbean and sections of the Central America constitute relatively small Caribbean Plate (Brescia & Super, 2009). Mexico equally manifests highly varied topography that comprises of rugged mountains with high elevations, high plateaus, low coastal plains, and deserts. Mexico’s climate can also be regarded as variable mainly dominated by tropical or desert climate (Colby, 2011). Nor th America Climate The core factors that impact on climate include continentality, latitude, surface physiography, and air masse possess huge impacts on the climate of North America, which in turn, possess direct influences the bio-geographic distribution of the natural vegetation across the region. The core factors that influence vegetation patterns entail temperature and humidity (precipitation). The climate that manifest in North America is

Saturday, September 21, 2019

The Importance of Maintaining Health and Healthy Lifestyle Practices Short Answer Essay Example for Free

The Importance of Maintaining Health and Healthy Lifestyle Practices Short Answer Essay Q1. Describe the mechanics of inspiration and expiration in a resting person Breathing also referred to as ventilation is involved with the air movement into and out of the lungs to the atmosphere. The breathing process comprises of two phases, which is inspiration and expiration. West (2014) indicated that the main muscles that are involved in the breathing movements are the diaphragm which forms the chest cavity floor, the intercostals muscles that are attached to the ribs. During the process of inspiration, the external intercostals muscles and diaphragm contract allowing the air to flow in. Petechuk (2010) indicated that the diaphragm moves down during inspiration and this increases the volume of the chest (thoracic) cavity. On the other hand, the external intercostals muscles pull the ribs outward and upwards. This expands the rib cage and further increase the chest volume. According to Ionescu (2013), the increase on the chest volume lowered in the lungs the air pressure as compared to the atmospheric air. However, because the air always flows from a high pressure region to an area of low pressure, the air will travel through the conducting airways of the body into the alveoli in the lungs. The conducting airways of the body include the nostrils, the throat, larynx and the trachea. Expiration in resting person has contrasting muscular activities to inspiration of a resting man. During expiration of a resting man, the external intercostals muscles and the diaphragm relax. This restores the thoracic activity to its smaller (original) volume, and this forces the air out of the lungs into the atmosphere. For an adult who is healthy and is at rest, the breathing mechanism sets up a rate typically between 16 and 20 breaths in a minute. Q2. Discuss how lung volumes change in response to vigorous breathing (forced inspiration and expiration) and what additional muscles will be used to ensure these volumes are met During forced inspiration or expiration also known as vigorous breathing, the lung volumes changes because of some additional usage of muscles. Forced breathing normally occurs when a person is engaging in a rigorous activity of is exercising (Martin, 2012). It may also be described as a deeper breathing and applies more musculature for expiration and inspiration. According to Nieman Presidents Council on Physical Fitness and Sports (U.S.) (2013), when an individual is exercising, there is an increased demand for oxygen in the body and also an increased ventilation of the lungs. Furthermore, the frequency for deflation and inflation increases and the quantity of air that is breathed in and out increases too. West (2014) indicated that during the inspiration process, the additional muscles that are attached to the sternum and the ribs helps in raising the ribcage. On the other hand, during forced expiration West (2014) asserted that the internal intercostals muscles contract and therefore pulls down the rib cage more quickly. Moreover, the abdominal muscles also contract, and therefore push up on the diaphragm. This forces more air to move out of the lungs. This movement of the diaphragm, internal intercostals muscles and the abdominal muscles helps individuals to breathe more deeply and quickly. Both expiration and inspiration are active processes now that require the contraction of the muscles. As an individual inhale, the diaphragm contracts and moves downwards before flattening out. This allows the ribs and the lungs to expand in all planes, and thereby increasing the thoracic cavity volume. Similarly, Petechuk (2010) explained that the abdominal wall comprises of four layers, with the transverses abdominis muscle being the deepest layer and supports the trunk. During a forced exhalation, Petechuk (2010) pointed out that the traverses abdominis muscle starts to contract, and this increases the abdominal pressure Q3. Describe any four normal age related changes to the anatomy and physiology of the respiratory system in healthy elderly adults (over 65 years) Decreased strength of the respiratory muscles. The diaphragm, intercostals muscles and the abdominal muscles that help in the process of breathing will decrease and the effect is that inadequate amount of oxygen will be inhaled. Furthermore, the amount of carbon iv oxide will be higher because of the weaker respiratory muscles to help in exhalation. The implication of the decreased strength of the respiratory muscle is that there will be reduced functional reserve of the pulmonary with no change at rest, while with exertion; it will result to decreased exercise tolerance and dyspnea (Lalley, 2013). The chest wall will become stiffer with reduced compliance. This will lead to decreased chest and lung expansion and respiratory excursion with less effective exhalation. Furthermore, the respiratory rate will fall to about 12 to 24 breaths in a minute. Stiffness of the chest wall may be because of the stiffness or weakness of the respiratory muscles, the diminished strength in the chest wall or pain associated with the age on the skeletal system. The ribs may be affected also be affected with osteoporosis and therefore make the chest wall stiff (Farley, McLafferty Hendry, 2011). Decreased response to hypercapnia and hypoxia. The implication is the decreased cough, and also foreign matter/mucus clearance. Hypoxia which is the condition associated with minimal or no oxygen will result because diminished energy to enable inhalation of the aged individual. Therefore, less amount of oxygen will be supplied in the whole body (Lalley, 2013). Diminished macrophages and cilliary activity, hence resulting to decreased cough reflexes and drier mucus membranes. This will lead to increased risk of brorichospasm and infection with airway obstruction (Farley, McLafferty Hendry, 2011). Q4. Describe three effects long term exercise has in maintaining a healthy respiratory system Because of the long term exercise, the pulmonary ventilation will increase because of the stimulation of the respiratory centers found in the brain stem. This will help in increasing of air sacs in the lungs. Furthermore, it will help in clearing out of any mucus in the respiratory system that may be in (Ionescu, 2013). Furthermore, long term exercises helps in increasing the capacity of the lungs. Long term exercises will enable the respiratory system to be healthy especially the lungs. Thos will lead to production of a greater number of the alveoli, and those will increase the tidal volume as well as the vital capacity of the lungs The strength of the diaphragm muscle will also be increased with long term exercises. Increased strength of the diaphragm will helpful especially in forced expiration and when individual engages in exercises. Long term exercises will make the lungs to supply enough air to the body cells faster. This will make the cells to use the air in the more production of ATP. Similarly, it will help the cell in removal of the carbon iv oxide and therefore prevent impairing of the blood (Nieman Presidents Council on Physical Fitness and Sports (U.S.), 2013). References Lalley, P.M. (2013) The ageing respiratory system Pulmonary structure, function and neural control. Respiratory Physiology Neurobiotogy 187 199-210 West, J. B. (2014). Mechanics of breathing. San Diego, Calif: West ; [New York : for loan or sale by Audio Visual Medical Marketing. Petechuk, D. (2010). The respiratory system. Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press. Ionescu, C. M. (2013). The human respiratory system: An analysis of the interplay between anatomy, structure, breathing and fractal dynamics. London: Springer. Martin, D. E. (2012). Respiratory anatomy and physiology. St. Louis, Mo: Mosby. Farley, A., McLafferty, E., Hendry, C. (2011). The Physiological Effects of Ageing. Hoboken: John Wiley Sons. Nieman, D. C., Presidents Council on Physical Fitness and Sports (U.S.). (2013). Does exercise alter immune function and respiratory infections?. Washington, D.C: Presidents Council on Physical Fitness and Sports. Source document

Friday, September 20, 2019

Green Tea Organics PEST, SWOT and Porters Analysis

Green Tea Organics PEST, SWOT and Porters Analysis When an organization gets prepared to step into the international market, it has a lot of things to do. The term marketing will always be an inevitable term for them whether they are supplying the products domestically or internationally. There are many differences between the domestic and international business in terms of marketing. Whenever an organization sees itself doing great in the domestic market, it also aims to capture the international market. But capturing the international market is not an easy thing. It needs a lot of research, planning and effort. The managers need to do understand all the complexities and diversities of international marketing. After understanding these things, they also need to build up the skills, aptitudes and knowledge so they can achieve their target in the international level. There is a need for strong research and development team in the organization to learn about the need of the products in the market and also to learn about how to establish their brand in that particular country for attracting and satisfying the new range of customers. There is a need to perform the PESTLE analysis- political, economic, social, technological, legal and environmental analysis. They also need to learn about the strengths, weakness and the opportunities of the organization in that market. As the consumption of tea in Malaysia is increasing day by day and there is a growing need for organic tea, Green Tea Organics Limited, a recently formed organization thought of exporting organic tea to Malaysia. This report will focus on the external environment analysis by Green Tea Organics Limited. It will also try to analyze the strengths, weakness and opportunities and at the end, this report will try to design some marketing strategies for Green Tea Organics Limited for coping up with the market. Planning is always defined as a systematic way for relating things to the future. It is basically an attempt which is taken to manage the effects of external, uncontrollable factors on the strengths, weaknesses, objectives and the goals of the firms for attaining a desired end. Again, it is held to be a commitment of resources to the market of a country for achieving specific goals. We can also say that, planning is basically the job of making things happen in a synchronized way otherwise things might not occur. (Enderwick, 2009) It can also be related to the formulation of goals and methods for accomplishing them. So, it can be termed as both a process and a philosophy. Structurally, there are three ways to be used to define planning- corporate, strategic and tactical. International corporate planning is defined to be a long-term goal incorporating generalized objectives for the organization. The highest level of any organization conducts this planning. They also deal with the product, capital and research. International marketing strategy is the kind of a corporate planning which the highest levels of managers undertake to place their products in the international market (Cadogan, 2009). For that, they design different market entry strategies along with new marketing mix strategies so the products can catch the essence of the market and can also attract the right base of consumers. According to many researches, a cup of tea contains less caffeine than coffee. This is the reason health conscious consumers are more driven to drink tea. The invention of organic green tea is leading these consumers to prefer tea more than coffee as it has been widely promoted these days and it has also so many positive health benefits. (Waranantakul, 2014) There is an increase in the health conscious consumer base in Malaysia for which Green Tea Organics Limited chose it as their market place for organic green tea. International marketing is defined as the application of marketing principles by an organization or association in more than one country. There is a much debate between international marketing and global marketing. Coincidentally they both are held to be the same. (Peter and Olson, 2010) Situational analysis is performed to better understand the complexities and advantages in the market for the newly arrived organization. It consists of 5Cs- Company, Competitors, Customers, Collaborators and Climate. (Pandurangarao, 2015) 3.1 Company Green Tea Organics Limited started its journey in Assam, India. Domestically, it has a strong market of a 3.5 crores of organic tea consumer base in the all-over India. It has approximately 200 farmers in the different areas of Assam and among them, 120 farmers are certified. Seeing this growth, they want to export tea now. 3.2 Competitors Green Tea Organics as several competitors in Assam, India. But they have been able to differentiate themselves among them because of their quality and price range. Now it wants to capture the market of Malaysia with the same attributes. 3.3 Customers The growing health conscious consumer base of Malaysia is the main customers of Green Tea Organics Limited. Since they prefer tea to coffee and also want to have it in a low price range, Green Tea Organics has a strong potential to catch the market. 3.4 Collaborators Collaborators are the agencies or the media who help the organization from the foreign countries in setting up their business in the other country. Green Tea Organics will use the indirect channel for the distribution of their products. They will look for the third party agencies so they can sell their products in the market for the first few months. The advantage of using an indirect channel is that it doesnt require sales personnel to be present at the market. 3.5 Climate The climate for a business means the external environment. Green Tea Organics is currently ready to face all the complexities in the Malaysian market. 4.1 Mission Statement Right now, Green Tea Organics Limited wants to export their product organic tea to Malaysia to capture this international market with the quality of their product and also the low price range. Basically the roadmap of Green Tea Organics starts with the mission which is held to be enduring. It very well establishes the purpose and also declares the standard against which it will always weight their actions and decisions. The missions are- To give a refreshing start to the day To motivate people with optimism and happiness To create a value To make a difference in the society 4.2 Product Green Tea Organics Limited wants to introduce their signature product organic green tea in the Malaysian market. There are some very important health benefits in it. There is the presence of polyphenoloxidase in it. According to doctors and researchers, there is an abundant supply of antioxidants which is said to have the prevention and curing power of more than 14 diseases, such as skin diseases, cancer, cavities, food poisoning, virus and excessive fat etc. 4.3 Target Market The target market for the organic green tea product of Green Tea Organics is those above of 5 years of age and who are also health conscious. This product can be consumed by any one above 5 years of the age. It will be very helpful for the fat people as it reduces fat and also for those who have diabetic problem as it doesnt contain sugar. So the age range of the customers basically will be from 20 to 75. 4.4 Financial Analysis Primarily, it will be priced at 5.29 ringgit for 1.5 liter and 2.55 ringgit for 500 mile liter. In this price range, it is assumed that it will be able to increase the overall sales of the company by 40% which will also contribute to the profit maximization of the company.   It is also assumed that it will produce a profit of 17% in the beginning of the year and it is assumed that it will increase to 25% to 30% by the end of the year. Researchers basically use PESTLE- political, economic, social, technological, legal and environmental analysis framework to understand the external environment (Waranantakul, 2014). It is said that it helps to understand the macro level factors of the business. This report will use this framework to analyze the external factors that might affect the business of Green Tea Organics in Malaysia. 5.1 Political Environment There are many political elements which have the potential to affect the organic tea product of Green Tea Organics. One of the reasons will be the duty and tax rate in Malaysia. It has the ability to affect the customer spending and also the enterprise expenses in Malaysia. Recently the Malaysia government has brought down the interest level to boost up the economy. There is another variable which is the interest rates. It would have a positive impact as it will help to bring much investment. Green Tea Organics will be able to bring in investment through loans. Apart from this, currently Malaysia has a very calm political atmosphere which shows the sign of no war and no distressing situation. 5.2 Economic Environment The business of Green Tea Organics will be profoundly affected by the current economic environment of Malaysia. The last year was a difficult year for Malaysia but they were able to close it on a good note. In the last quarter the GDP had recorded the strongest performance. It expanded in a better than expected rate of 4.5 %. Acceleration in the fixed investment and resilient private consumption underpinned the robust result. Researchers are saying that ringgit has become weaker and there has been an increase in the oil price which has contributed significantly towards the development. However, they are also saying that the net contribution by the external sector got stable as the imports had gained steam. Thats why Green Tea Organics can hope for a better result when establishing their business in Malaysia looking at all these factors. 5.3 Social Environment Many social and cultural changes are being seen in Malaysia which can have impact on the consumption of organic green tea. Since there is an increase in the sense of health consciousness among people, they want to consume those foods which have positive health effect on them. One of the very popular domestic tea manufacturers of Malaysia earned a value share of 34% with a sale of MYR90 million with the introduction of their new product called Green Tea Latte with instant tea back in August 2016. The company also invented a recipe to make jelly by using that green tea latte. They promoted this recipe using Facebook and other social media which earned a lot of attention and popularity. So, they created a social trend of having different foods with the use of green tea. Green Tea Organics Limited has to keep it in mind. 5.4 Technological Environment As there has been an intense technological growth in Malaysia, it will help Green Tea Organics Limited to create an online business for their organic green tea product. It is told to be one of the most accepted models of the customers in Malaysia. Consumers prefer the online social networking sites like Facebook, twitter and YouTube to be the most interactive platforms for their communication with the manufacturers and others. Academicians and market researchers proclaim this to be as one of the main ingredients for a successful marketing strategy which allows the customers for finding the best facilities and also for developing effective communication that involve using different apps on their smartphones. 5.5 Legal Environment It is important that Green Tea Organics Limited maintain all the legal procedures while starting their business in Malaysia and exporting the products in here. They will have to maintain the standards that are enforced by the jurisdiction. They will have to maintain the regulations of processing the tea, the packaging, sourcing and manufacturing and distributing it to the market. 5.6 Environmental Analysis The climate of Malaysia is warm throughout the year. The temperature of Malaysia ranges from 20 degree Celsius to 30 degree Celsius on an average. It has been observed that basically a tropical weather is observed by Malaysia. It is also believed that it is never too hot. Thats why it can work as a positive thing for Green Tea Organics as their organic green tea product will have the need all the year round. If it was too hot, people would have rather gone for cold drinks. So the tropical weather of Malaysia will give a head start to the business of organic green tea. Green Tea Organics Limited is going to establish a premium positioning for the first time. For their product, the tea leaves are brought from drying. Just after plucking, the fresh tea leaves are steamed. It is said that a dietary source of biologically active compounds is provided by tea. They are assuming to prevent a wide variety of diseases. There is much evidence which say that a moderate level of the consumption of tea will protect against various forms of diseases. Still, to establish a business, Green Tea Organics will have to analyze their strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. (Krstic and Becic, 2011) 6.1 Strengths Green Tea Organics has a strong brand image in Assam, India. They produce good quality products with fresh ingredients. Their products have an affordable price range. They are considered cheaper among all the other competing brands. Their products taste delicious It doesnt contain sugar It will work as a savior of thirsty In the drinkers, it will have a calming and soothing effect. It bears international standard. 6.2 Weakness It is primarily having a poor advertising strategy. It is a brand-new product in Malaysia. The rate of awareness among the consumers is still pretty low. It has some very strong competitors in the Malaysian Market. It is still having a less promotion. 6.3 Opportunities Green Tea Organics Limited can introduce more unique flavor and fragrance in their product. As it doesnt contain any sugar, it will be much valued by the diabetic patients. Other products by the competitors have been introduced a long time ago. The life cycle of their products have been approaching to decline stage. So Green Tea Organics has the opportunity to capture the market. They have the opportunity to increase the promotion and awareness of the product through proper advertising and promotional strategies. 6.4 Threats Brands like Lipton have established their products a long time ago for which they also have a strong brand image. Their old label is well known to the people of Malaysia. They will approach to their well-known product. As it doesnt contain any sugar. So the consumers may feel bored at a time with the single taste. So if they dont introduce new flavor, they will not be able to retain the market. Strategy is basically defined as the art of coordinating and managing the processes of the organizations, such as human resources, money and material for achieving the profit, company growth and customer satisfaction by following the policy and objectives of the company. So the marketing strategy of an organization is also defined as an implementation process through which the manager will be able to achieve the objectives of the company easily. (Krstic and Becic, 2011) For a marketer, it is hardly possible to satisfy everyone. For every individual, the taste and preference would vary. Everyone wouldnt like the same product or service. Thats why, there is the need to segment the market demographically, psychographic or behaviorally. There is a need to bring difference among the buyers. (Waranantakul, 2014) The market for the organic tea product of Green Tea Organics has been segmented. Since it has aimed to do an online distribution, it then eliminates the geographical barrier. Anyone will be able to order the product through the website of Green Tea Organics. Apart from the online consumer base, there will be a consumer base in Malaysia. For any efficient marketer, he will target the market after segmenting the market. For Green Tea Organics, the consumer base consist the age range from 20 to 70. They include the health conscious consumers. The introduction of new beverages has not really been able to affect the consumption of tea of these people. Their main priority is their health. For them, maintaining their health by having green tea is a priority. Again Malaysia has a tropical weather which inspires having tea at home rather than going out. (Enderwick, 2009) Green Tea Organics has aimed to position itself by following the premium positioning. So anyone will have an interest to it. 7.1 Marketing Mix To ensure a proper marketing strategy, there is a need to device marketing strategies and also integrate the marketing programs properly. So, marketing mix is followed which contains 4P- Product, price, promotion and place. 7.1.1 Product Green Tea Organics Limited will be introducing the very best organic tea product in the market which contains no fertilizer or chemical when growing them. The company will be exporting the tea directly to Malaysia just after deriving it from the garden to protect its originality. Green Tea Organics will be using their own brand name to sell the product. They will be selling it in bottles and tea bags for the convenience of the consumers. 7.1.2 Price The price range of the organic tea products will be an affordable one. A 35% of the margin will be kept aside for the retailers who buy in a bulk. After the product is delivered, the company will give them a month of bonus period. They will also give a month of credit period to those who will buy in larger quantities. 7.1.3 Promotion Green Tea Organics will be using the line advertisements. They will advertise and promote it by using their public relation. 7.1.4 Place Green Tea Organics will rent a place at first where the products will be stored for distribution. Various kinds of distribution channels will be used to reach the customers. The product will have its availability at various super markets. It can also be found in the shops in the neighborhood. Apart from all these, Green Tea Organics will have its own website for carrying out their online transaction. Thus Green Tea Organics Limited will be following the marketing mix strategy of 4P to market their product. For any organization, it is difficult to capture the essence of the international market at first.  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚   It requires a great deal of research, analysis and effective decision making process to give a head start to the business. For any business in the international market, there will be strong competitors. To differentiate the business from them, there is a need to develop the kind of a marketing strategy that will promote the product and the organization to the consumers literally in a different way. This report has tried to develop the strategy by analyzing all the issues of the international market. Now Green Tea Organics Limited will be following all these strategies to capture the market of Malaysia with their organic tea products. References Abdullah Saif, N. (2015). How does Marketing Strategy Influence Firm Performance? Implementation of Marketing Strategy for Firm Success. International Journal Of Innovation And Economic Development, 1(3), pp.7-15. Cadogan, J. (2009). Marketing strategy. 1st ed. Los Angeles [etc.]: SAGE. Chimngamsert, C., Jhundra-indra, P. and Raksong, S. (2014). BUILDING SUSTAINABLE MARKETING SUCCESS THROUGH SOCIETAL MARKETING STRATEGY. International Journal of Business Strategy, 14(3), pp.39-58. Enderwick, P. (2009). Large emerging markets (LEMs) and international strategy. International Marketing Review, 26(1), pp.7-16. Krstic, I. and Becic, S. (2011). Implementation of marketing strategy: Factor of competitive advantage. Marketing, 42(2), pp.118-126. Pandurangarao, D. (2015). http://researchleap.com/how-does-marketing-strategy-influence-firm-performance-implementation-of-marketing-strategy-for-firm-success/. International Journal Of Innovation And Economic Development, 1(3), pp.16-22. Pandurangarao, D. (2015). http://researchleap.com/how-does-marketing-strategy-influence-firm-performance-implementation-of-marketing-strategy-for-firm-success/. International Journal Of Innovation And Economic Development, 1(3), pp.16-22. Peter, J. and Olson, J. (2010). Consumer behavior marketing strategy. 1st ed. New York: McGraw-Hill Irwin. Slater, S., Hult, G. and Olson, E. (2010). Factors influencing the relative importance of marketing strategy creativity and marketing strategy implementation effectiveness. Industrial Marketing Management, 39(4), pp.551-559. Special issue on International marketing theory, strategy and implementation: insights from Latin America. (2010). International Marketing Review, 27(6). Waranantakul, W. (2014). MARKETING STRATEGY COMPREHENSIVENESS AND FIRM PERFORMANCE: THE MEDIATING ROLE OF MARKETING STRATEGY IMPLEMENTATION EFFECTIVENESS. Journal of International Management Studies, 14(3), pp.43-50.

Thursday, September 19, 2019

Whos Afraid of Edward Albee? :: Biography Biographies Essays

Who's Afraid of Edward Albee?      Ã‚   Edward Albee was considered the chief playwright of the Theater of the Absurd when his first successful one-act experimental plays emerged.   The Zoo Story, The Death of Bessie Smith, The Sandbox, and Quotations from Chairman Mao Tse-Tung were all released during Albee's thirties between 1959 and 1968 (Artists   1-2).   Edward Albee was born in the nation's capitol on March 12, 1928, and his career has brought him three Pulitzer Prizes over four decades, the first for A Delicate Balance in 1966 and the most recent in 1994 for Three Tall Women.   While Albee's original works established him as a leading voice in America's Theater of the Absurd, his more mature plays were representative of traditional playwrights like Eugene O'Neill and August Strindberg.      Unlike many successful writers, the childhood of Albee was not one of deprivation.   On the contrary,   Albee was adopted at the age of two weeks by a millionaire family.   From that point on he knew a life of wealth and privilege.   He resided with his family in Westchester, New York.   His childhood experience was quite remote from that of many writers who knew squalor and deprivation.   As one magazine article said regarding his childhood years, "It was a time of servants, tutors, riding lessons, winters in Miami, summers sailing on the Sound:   there was a Rolls Royce to bring him, smuggled in lap robes, to matinees in the city; an inexhaustible wardrobe housed in a closet as big as a room.   Albee has never made any explicit comments about the happiness of his childhood.   His father was believed, however, to be dominated by his wife, who was considerably younger than her husband and an avid athlete" (Biography   1).   His grandfather was one of the major f igures in the development of the razzmatazz of American show-business and the owner of a famous chain of vaudeville theaters.   Albee was named after him and this lineage gave him a great deal of exposure to plays and theater people at a young age.   Albee was not very adept at schoolwork though he showed promise as a writer from a young age.   He dropped out of Trinity College in Hartford, Connecticut, after a year and a half to pursue a writing career full time in New York.   However, while at Trinity, Albee did gain theater experience by playing a variety of characters in plays produced by the college drama department.

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

Leadership and Groups: FMC Green River Essay -- Business Leading Essay

Leadership and Groups: FMC Green River Background FMC is and has been a successful company for the last fifty-six years. First originated in 1948 and produced 1.3 million tons of various grades of soda ash a year. The success of the first business brought about a second refining plant in 1953, which was completed in 1970. FMC Aberdeen, located in South Dakota with a population of 30,000 is also a successful subsidy of FMC. FMC Aberdeen employs one hundred people, produces one product, which is a missile canister for the U.S. Navy. FMC Green River managed by Mr. Dailey, produces various chemicals, has over 100 domestic and international customers, 1,150 employees, creates several products and works closely at times with the United Steel Workers of America. Situational Awareness Aberdeen has a great structure for the ability to create quickly various small work teams such as informal groups or self managed work teams that allow the group to focus on improving a specific process. At Aberdeen the small groups gather, choose their own leader, poll together ideas and come up with a solution to specific problem. Once a solution is found the team disbands. Since Aberdeen’s company is smaller and its employees create a family atmosphere, the role relationships between the people in the groups have a strong personal bond. This basic idea will also work at FMC Green River but will require some modifications. At Green River, if they follow the same concept, then the small groups that gather to solve a specific problem must also remember that what effects one decision in the process they are improving may have a devastating impact on another division of the same company since the company produces different products. Quickly creating teams on the spot for resolut ions to specific problems as done at Aberdeen is much easier when only dealing with one product for one customer. At FMC Green River, where there are several products being produced and over 1,150 employees, trying to incorporate small teams when the need arises will work but some restrictions may have to be applied. I would suspect more division of labor and command groups would be better suited due to the possible impact of a decision by one team, which may significantly influence another part of the organization. The culture created at Aberdeen in terms of the small groups gathering ... ...llow up on the new process on the results and make a final report or provide information on additional improvements. I’m not sure if this is done at Aberdeen. Since the number of managers should be limited, it would be advisable to allow the leaders of groups (if the leaders rotate) to counsel in a positive or negative way the group members performance. This will better and more accurately document performance to be used for yearly reviews for pay increases or promotions. Also by allowing the leaders to counsel it will build on their management skill and confidence. But, all members of the teams should have this opportunity by rotating the leaders as done at Aberdeen. Green River could use the advances of technology to create virtual teams to support the overall mission of Green River. I think the managers of the different areas and not for the small work teams should use it. Works Cited: J. M. George and G. R. Jones, â€Å"Organizational Behavior,† 3rd ed. (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2001) J. G. Clawson, â€Å"FMC Aberdeen from Practical Problems in Organizations: Cases in Leadership, Organizational Behavior and Human Resources,† Custom ed (Prentice Hall, 2003)

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

Fertility Drugs: Are they worth it? :: Pregnancy Reproduction Medical Essays

Fertility Drugs: Are they worth it? Over the past few years there seems to have been an increase in the amount of couples that have used fertility drugs and ended up having nine or more children. The couples' stories have been aired on the news, and when interviewed, many of the couples stated that they only wanted one child, but because one of the spouses was infertile, they were unable to get pregnant. At the advice of their doctor, the couple took fertility drugs, and the result was the rapid expansion of their family. The effectiveness of fertility drugs such as Clomiphene and Bromocriptine are overshadowed by their many, and often very harmful, side effects. Are infertility drugs worth the cost that possible side effects have? Causes and Solutions to Infertility Infertility affects 7.1 percent, or 2.8 million couples, of married people in the United States. It is difficult to assess the overall percentage of infertility that exists in the United States, as many individuals do not know that they are infertile until they attempt to have children. In addition, information on the web is confined to addressing infertility among married couples, thus this web paper discusses studies conducted among married couples. Less than a third of married couples seek help from their doctors, even though almost 90 percent of all cases of infertility have one or more causes than can be treated. Infertility's most common causes include egg quality/production, blocked tubes, and the male-factor. (1). Problems in egg quality/production are the result of poor egg quality, irregular ovulation or failure to ovulate because of hormonal deficiencies or imbalances. A fourth case is polycystic ovarian syndrome, which is a condition in which a hormonal imbalance prevents the egg-containing follicles on the ovaries from maturing and releasing an egg, instead forming sometimes painful ovarian cysts. These problems, especially deteriorating egg quality, are often age-related, and apply most often to women 37 and older. Possible solutions to poor egg quality/production include use of a donor egg, fertility drugs such as Clomiphene and Bromocriptine, and in vitro fertilization (IVF). (1). Blocked fallopian tubes are often the result of scar tissue, adhesions, and damaged tube ends (fibria). Another common cause is endometriosis, which is the growth of endometrial cells (the tissue that lines the uterus) outside the uterus, most often on the ovaries, Fallopian tubes, or the exterior of the uterus.

All You Need Is Love

The LGBT community began to fght back after the Stonewall Riots and are still fighting for the ame freedoms heterosexuals currently hold. These freedoms include the right to marry and marriage provides couples with many benefits that only heterosexual couples are privvy to. One by one the states are changing their views and legalizing gay marriage, but there are still many states to persuade. Gay marriage needs to be legalized in all states because the purpose of marriage is love, legalizing gay marriage will not harm heterosexual marriages or the current â€Å"family values†, and marriage is a basic civil right.The view on gay marriage has varied over the last one hundred years. According to the PBS film Stonewall Uprising, in all states besides Illinois, homosexual acts were illegal in 1969. Dr. Socarides, a guest in the film says, â€Å"Homosexuality is in fact a mental illness which has reached epidemiological proportions† (Davis, 2011). This was said in the 1960's Just before the Stonewall Riots. Back then, the costs for being gay were extreme, and punishments included institution in California named Atascadero, where the medical extremes were practiced.At Atascadero, they used medical experimentation that included â€Å"administering, to gay people, a drug that simulated the experience of drowning; in ther words, a pharmacological example of waterboarding† (Davis, 2011). They punished gays, lesbians, bisexuals and trans-genders for something they could not control. A riot member named Doric Wilson reported that many who underwent this treatment, turned into walking vegetables (Davis, 2011). Before the riots at the Stonewall Bar, homosexuality was treated as a contagious sickness of the mind.Law enforcement and the media encouraged citizens to hate all people who were not conforming to the typical mom and dad household with two point three children. Councilman Ed Koch of New York City states, â€Å"Gay rights, like the rights of black s, were constantly under attack and while blacks were protected against constitutional amendments, gays were not protected by law and certainly not the Constitution† (Davis, 2011). That is when the Riots occurred.The Stonewall Bar was located in The Village, a place where gays, lesbians and drag queens could go and be themselves, but the police raided this gay bar frequently, usually in the mid afternoon. One night in the summer of 1969, a group of six policemen raided the bar; however, they were unsuccessful. The police were pushed into the bar and trapped inside, while thousands of people gathered outside in protest. Eventually additional officers showed up in riot uniforms with clubs and face guards, and were again ambushed by the protestors.Soon enough, the police charged and started beating and clubbing people. This went on for a few days and eventually the Stonewall Riots became a part of history. The Riots essentially said to America, miou promised freedom, now get off our backs and deliver on the promise† (Davis, 2011). Since the Stonewall Uprising, sixteen states have legalized gay marriage including New Jersey, Hawaii and Illinois. Surely, Americans have evolved since the Stonewall Riots, but there is additional progress to be made. Only sixteen states have legalized gay marriage; moreover, there are still thirty-four states left.The real question is what is keeping people from voting for same-marriage? There are a variety of reasons opponents argue same-sex marriage should be illegal. Their main argument involves the traditional definition of marriage. For generations the definition of marriage has been â€Å"a union of man and woman, uniquely involving the procreation and rearing of hildren with a family' (ProCon. org, 2013). This is supported by religious texts such as the Bible, but there are many arguments as to why the above definition in invalid. To begin, it is also stated in the Bible that women are property of men.It is the twe nty- first century and there are equal rights for women, many women participate in the workforce and it is no longer acceptable to suggest that a woman's place is at home. Supporters are in agreement with Sylvia Law when she stated, â€Å"any effort by the state to hardwire sex differences into the concept of marriage perpetuates traditional sex- ased stereotypes of man-as-breadwinner and woman-as-housekeeper† (Eskridge, 1993). Everyday an increasing number of Americans become more open-minded and accepting of others, so why can people not be accepting of homosexuals.If people of religion can disregard one statement, why can they not disregard another? Ted Olsen, former US Solicitor General also argues the definition of marriage. Ted Olsen who work to create a loving household and a social and economic partnership† (Olson, 2010). Proponents to gay marriage believe this is what the definition of marriage should be and will be in the future. Gay marriage is opposed not on ly because of the definition of marriage, but also because critics believe that it could damage the family values of Americans and that the purpose of marriage is to procreate.Family values such as equality, work ethic, and the importance of family are all values that would be strengthened by same-sex marriage, not weakened. The value of equality and work ethic are especially prominent in same-sex couples. Homosexual couples worked extremely hard in order for equality, and giving them the option to become married would only increase the value of their morals. The importance of family is another value that is only being diminished when same-sex couples are forbidden to marry. Marriage is the gateway to family, and without it, the importance of such family becomes invisible. All You Need Is Love The LGBT community began to fght back after the Stonewall Riots and are still fighting for the ame freedoms heterosexuals currently hold. These freedoms include the right to marry and marriage provides couples with many benefits that only heterosexual couples are privvy to. One by one the states are changing their views and legalizing gay marriage, but there are still many states to persuade. Gay marriage needs to be legalized in all states because the purpose of marriage is love, legalizing gay marriage will not harm heterosexual marriages or the current â€Å"family values†, and marriage is a basic civil right.The view on gay marriage has varied over the last one hundred years. According to the PBS film Stonewall Uprising, in all states besides Illinois, homosexual acts were illegal in 1969. Dr. Socarides, a guest in the film says, â€Å"Homosexuality is in fact a mental illness which has reached epidemiological proportions† (Davis, 2011). This was said in the 1960's Just before the Stonewall Riots. Back then, the costs for being gay were extreme, and punishments included institution in California named Atascadero, where the medical extremes were practiced.At Atascadero, they used medical experimentation that included â€Å"administering, to gay people, a drug that simulated the experience of drowning; in ther words, a pharmacological example of waterboarding† (Davis, 2011). They punished gays, lesbians, bisexuals and trans-genders for something they could not control. A riot member named Doric Wilson reported that many who underwent this treatment, turned into walking vegetables (Davis, 2011). Before the riots at the Stonewall Bar, homosexuality was treated as a contagious sickness of the mind.Law enforcement and the media encouraged citizens to hate all people who were not conforming to the typical mom and dad household with two point three children. Councilman Ed Koch of New York City states, â€Å"Gay rights, like the rights of black s, were constantly under attack and while blacks were protected against constitutional amendments, gays were not protected by law and certainly not the Constitution† (Davis, 2011). That is when the Riots occurred.The Stonewall Bar was located in The Village, a place where gays, lesbians and drag queens could go and be themselves, but the police raided this gay bar frequently, usually in the mid afternoon. One night in the summer of 1969, a group of six policemen raided the bar; however, they were unsuccessful. The police were pushed into the bar and trapped inside, while thousands of people gathered outside in protest. Eventually additional officers showed up in riot uniforms with clubs and face guards, and were again ambushed by the protestors.Soon enough, the police charged and started beating and clubbing people. This went on for a few days and eventually the Stonewall Riots became a part of history. The Riots essentially said to America, miou promised freedom, now get off our backs and deliver on the promise† (Davis, 2011). Since the Stonewall Uprising, sixteen states have legalized gay marriage including New Jersey, Hawaii and Illinois. Surely, Americans have evolved since the Stonewall Riots, but there is additional progress to be made. Only sixteen states have legalized gay marriage; moreover, there are still thirty-four states left.The real question is what is keeping people from voting for same-marriage? There are a variety of reasons opponents argue same-sex marriage should be illegal. Their main argument involves the traditional definition of marriage. For generations the definition of marriage has been â€Å"a union of man and woman, uniquely involving the procreation and rearing of hildren with a family' (ProCon. org, 2013). This is supported by religious texts such as the Bible, but there are many arguments as to why the above definition in invalid. To begin, it is also stated in the Bible that women are property of men.It is the twe nty- first century and there are equal rights for women, many women participate in the workforce and it is no longer acceptable to suggest that a woman's place is at home. Supporters are in agreement with Sylvia Law when she stated, â€Å"any effort by the state to hardwire sex differences into the concept of marriage perpetuates traditional sex- ased stereotypes of man-as-breadwinner and woman-as-housekeeper† (Eskridge, 1993). Everyday an increasing number of Americans become more open-minded and accepting of others, so why can people not be accepting of homosexuals.If people of religion can disregard one statement, why can they not disregard another? Ted Olsen, former US Solicitor General also argues the definition of marriage. Ted Olsen who work to create a loving household and a social and economic partnership† (Olson, 2010). Proponents to gay marriage believe this is what the definition of marriage should be and will be in the future. Gay marriage is opposed not on ly because of the definition of marriage, but also because critics believe that it could damage the family values of Americans and that the purpose of marriage is to procreate.Family values such as equality, work ethic, and the importance of family are all values that would be strengthened by same-sex marriage, not weakened. The value of equality and work ethic are especially prominent in same-sex couples. Homosexual couples worked extremely hard in order for equality, and giving them the option to become married would only increase the value of their morals. The importance of family is another value that is only being diminished when same-sex couples are forbidden to marry. Marriage is the gateway to family, and without it, the importance of such family becomes invisible.

Monday, September 16, 2019

Comparative Study of Training and Development of Sbi and Icici Bank

â€Å"TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT – A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF â€Å"INDUSTRIAL CREDIT AND INVESTMENT CORPORATION OF INDIA†(ICICI) with â€Å"STATE BANK OF INDIA†(SBI). BY Mr. R. CHRISTURATNAM Research Scholar for part time Reg No: Y12COMR006 UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF Prof. S. VIJAYA RAJU Department of Commerce and Business Management ACHARAY NAGARJUNA UNIVERSITY NAGARJUNA NAGAR GUNTUR – 522002 INDEX I. INTRODUCTION II. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE III. OBJECTIVES AND METHODOLOGY IV. PROFILE OF THE BANKING SECTOR AND SELECTED BANKS V. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF TRAINING DEVELOPED BY SBI AND ICICI BANK(Trainees’ opinions ) VI.COMPARATIVE STUDY OF SBI AND ICICI, CHALANGES OF BANKING SECTOR(Trainers opinions) VII. FINDINGS, SUGGESTIONS AND CONCLUSIONS VIII. BIBLIOGRAPHY CHAPTER – I 1. 0 INTRODUCTION 2. 1 TRAINING 2. 2 DEVELOPMENT 2. 3 TRAINING IN ICICI 2. 4 TRAINING IN SBI 2. 5 DEVELOPMENT IN ICICI 2. 6 DEVELOPMENT IN SBI 2. 7 NEED OF THE STUDY 2. 8 SIGNIFICANC E OF THE STUDY 2. 9 PRESENT POSITION OF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT 2. 10 CONCLUSION CHAPTER – I 1. 0 INTRODUCTION `Managers unequivocally agree that this century demands more efficiency and productivity than any other times in history. Businesses are striving to increase their performance.Managers have been grappling with many challenges to succeed putting their company ahead of competitors. To help managers manage, different scholars, researchers and consultants have been contributing their part showing the best ways they think are useful to managers. Among those suggested techniques, concepts like Total Quality Management (TQM) and Business Process Reengineering (BPR) earned recognition from many authors in the second half of twentieth century and were found helpful in increasing organizational performance by focusing on operational and process improvements.They were/still being used as tools for management in their effort to plan, execute and control of the desired changes i n the operational quality. Thanks to technology, nowadays business companies are making use of advanced techniques of operation. As sophistication of technologies continues to evolve, they pose more challenges for managers because organizations will have to need more number of employees with increased technical and professional skills. These knowledge workers cannot be managed with old styles of totalitarian management.They expect operational autonomy, job satisfaction and status. It is because of these facts that attention of managers is shifting towards employees’ side of organizations. From last quarter of twentieth century onwards, concepts like employee commitment and Organizational Citizenship Behaviour (OCB) started to appear on the ground that efficiency and productivity lie within the employees’ ability and commitment. Managers’ eye is on how to keep employees engaged in their job. Employers now realize that by focusing on employee engagement, they can create more efficient and productive workforce.Any initiatives of improvement which are taken by management cannot be fruitful without willful involvement and engagement of employees. Employee engagement as a concept is vast. This article limits itself to discuss only the basic concepts on employee engagement based on recent literatures. It has four major parts. Firstly, the article explores the evolution of the concept, its definition and how it is different from the earlier concepts such as Commitment, Organizational Citizenship Behaviour (OCB) and job satisfaction.Secondly, the article discusses the factors or drivers leading to engagement. Thirdly, it details the impact of employee engagement on organizational performance indicators or business outcomes such as profitability, customer satisfaction, company growth, productivity and others pointing out its benefits and importance to organizations. Finally, the article suggests strategies the companies should take up to keep employ ees engaged in their jobs. CHAPTER – II OBJECTIVES AND METHODOLOGY

Sunday, September 15, 2019

As You Like It By William Shakespeare Essay

1. As you like it is full of characters pretending to be someone other than themselves. To what degree are the characters aware that they are role-playing? Does their acting have serious consequences, or is it merely a game. In the text as you like it by William Shakespeare many characters have alter egos in whom they use to influence and associate themselves with other characters. The two main characters that are pretending to be someone other than themselves are Celia and Rosalind. In act 1 of the text Rosalind is banished from the court of the duke and decides to seek upon her father in the forest of Arden. Rosalind and Celia decide to disguise themselves, Celia as a country girl named Aliena and Rosalind as a young man named Ganymede. Rosalind and Celia are unaware of the consequences that occur from having disguises. A consequence of Rosalind’s male disguise as Ganymede is that she makes Phebe, a female shepherdess in the forest of Arden fall in love with her. This disturbs the natural order in which Phebe is in love with a fellow shepherd Silvius. Rosalind’s gender swapping has created a consequence in she has made a woman fall in love with her when she is in love with Orlando. In the end Phebe goes back to Silvius and the consequence of Rosalind’s role-playing is resolved. The role-playing in the text does have effects on the other characters but Rosalind does end up marrying Orlando, Celia ends up marrying Oliver and Phebe ends up marrying Silvius. So the long-term consequences of Celia and Rosalind’s role-playing are miniscule only making the text more intricate and interesting for readers. In conclusion although characters in the text as you like it do pretend to be someone else, the consequences add to detail in the text and have have no serious consequences.

Saturday, September 14, 2019

Early Marriage in South Asia Essay

Early marriage affects millions of children through the world. It is widely practiced in the countries of South Asia where every year millions of girls-preteens and teens- become the wives of older men. Young girls are married when they are still children and as a result are denied fundamental human rights. Early marriage compromises their development and often results in early pregnancy and social isolation, with little education and poor vocational training reinforcing the gendered nature of poverty. Required to perform heavy amounts of domestic work, under pressure to demonstrate fertility, married girls and child mothers face constrained decision-making and reduced life choices. Both boys and girls are affected by child marriage but the issue impacts girls in far larger numbers, with more intensity—and is wide ranging.[1] Early marriage, better known as child marriage, is defined as marriage carried below the age of 18 years, â€Å"before the girl is physically, physiologically and psychologically ready to shoulder the responsibilities of marriage and child bearing†[2]. Many factors interact to place a child at risk of marriage. Parents encourage the marriage of their daughters while they are still children in hopes that the marriage will benefit them both financially and socially, while also relieving financial burdens on the family. Strong correlations between a woman’s age at marriage and the level of education she achieves, the age at which she gives birth to her first child and the age of her husband have been well documented. Early marriage means also the individual becomes sexually active early, raising children while children themselves. The marriage of a young girl affects not only her life but that of the children she will bear. Early marriage is by no means a new phenomenon.[3] It is a socially established practice that has been carried on from generation to generation. This is despite the existence of international and regional instruments that all the States in South Asia have ratified. Governments in the region also settled upon 18 as the minimum legal age at marriage. However, they are often either unable to enforce existing laws, or rectify discrepancies between national laws and customary and religious laws. Most often, child marriage is considered as a family matter and governed by religion and culture, which ensure its continuity. It remains therefore a widely ignored violation of the rights of girls and women and exposes them to multiple risks, including to sexual abuse and exploitation. Compiled from a study undertaken by Mira, B. AGHI, this paper examines early marriage in the region in order to offer information for analysis and discussion. The Prevalence Of Early Marriage In South Asia It is very difficult to get accurate data on the true extent of early marriages. This is because most marriages are not officially registered, and many parents resort to falsifying girls’ ages. Such acts are made easier in rural areas where birth certificates are often non-existent or not properly recorded. There is also very little data on girls married before the age of 15. Available data are often outdated and fail to provide adequate information. Although early marriage is said to be declining in many parts of the world, the total number of girls at risk or affected is very significant and cannot be ignored. It is estimated there are worldwide more than 51 million adolescent girls aged 15–19 who are married and bearing the burden of domestic responsibility and the risks associated with early sexual activity, including pregnancy.[4] In South Asia in 2005, 48% (nearly 10 million) of young women were married before the age of 18[5]. Figure 1 Child marriage, 1987 – 2006. (% of women 20-24 years of age that were married or in union before they were 18 years old) [pic] Despite a shift towards later marriages in many parts of the world, in the countries of South Asia a majority of girls still marry before age 18 (65% in Bangladesh, 57% in Nepal, 54% in Afghanistan, and almost 50% in India). One problem in assessing the prevalence of early marriages is that many are unregistered and unofficial and hence, are not a part of any data collection system. Very little data exists on marriages of children under the age of 10, even less on those below that age[6]. Some countries do have data. According to Bangladesh’s demographic and health survey of 1996-1997, there are 28 million adolescents in Bangladesh, 13.7% of these are girls, and the survey reported that more than half the girls below 19 were married and 5% of 10-14 year old girls were married. Another survey of women 25-29 years old reported that in Bangladesh 81% were married before the age of 18[8]. The lowest age at marriage is to be found in the western and southern parts of Bangladesh – specifically those adjoining India. In India, more than 57 per cent of girls are reported to get married before they turn 18. According to the Reproductive and Child Health District Level Household Survey, 28% girls overall, with 34.5% in rural and 13% in urban areas, are being married before they turned 18. According to a Rapid Household survey conducted across the country, 58.9% women in Bihar were married before the age of 18, 55.8% in Rajasthan, 54.9% in West Bengal, 53.8 % in Utter Pradesh, and 53.2% in Madhya Pradesh. National Family Health Survey data suggests that the median age for marriage in India is 16.4 years. This survey also found that 65% of the girls are married by the time they are 18.[9] There are additional surveys like one in 1993 which reported that in the Indian state of Rajasthan, on 5,000 women 56% had married before age 15, and of these, 17% were married before they were 10.[10] Another report indicated that nearly 14% of the girls in India’s largest state (Uttar Pradesh) are married between the ages of 10-14 years, whereas in the central province of Madhya Pradesh, 11% of urban and 16.4% of rural girls are married between the ages of 10-14 years.[11] In Nepal, the law has helped in increasing the age at marriage. However, the data which included female marriages at all ages showed that ethnicity is the major factor of age at marriage in Nepal. The ethnic groups are mostly concentrated in the Terai region, which borders India, and where the cultural norms and practices are highly influenced by the culture of north India. In contrast to other groups, especially in the mountain region, women belonging to the Terai groups are generally confined to farming; they exercise comparatively less control over the economic resources and decision-making. The most notable data from Nepal is 83.1% of girls of some ethnic groups marry before they are 15 years old. 79.6% Muslim girls marry before they are 15 years old. 69.7% girls in the mountainous and hilly regions marry at the age of 15 whereas 55.7% in rural Nepal marry before they turn 15.[12] Early marriage is more common in Surkhet district of mid-western Nepal.[13] One of the findings of the study is that higher caste girls do not feel the pressure to marry at a very young age and while they are in primary school. But when they reach 13 years, pressure is put on them especially if they fail their school exams. If they are doing well their parents will often let them continue with their studies. Lower caste girls have much higher pressure and less choice.[14] A survey of adults 25-29 years old revealed that in Pakistan 37% of the girls were married before the legal age, which at the time was16.[15] In Pakistan, as in other countries of South Asia, early marriage is more common in rural areas. Also people living in rural areas observe traditions more closely than those who live in urban areas. Causes Of Early Marriage Many reasons are given by parents and guardians to justify child marriage. Economic reasons often underpin these decisions which are directly linked to poverty and the lack of economic opportunities for girls in rural areas. Girls are either seen as an economic burden or valued as capital for their exchange value in terms of goods, money or livestock. A combination of cultural, traditional and religious arguments also justifies child marriage. The fear and stigma attached to premarital sex and bearing children outside marriage, and the associated family honor, are often seen as valid reasons for the actions that families take. Finally, many parents tend to curtail the education of their girls and marry them off, due to fear of exposure to sexual violence and abuse encountered. Early marriage as a strategy for economic reasons Poverty is one of the major factors underpinning early marriage. In many of the cases, the families are in poverty and one less daughter is one less mouth to feed. Poor families may regard young girls as an economic burden and the practice of early marriage, as an act of unburdening and a coping strategy. When poverty is acute, a young girl’s presence in the house is felt as unbearable and her marriage to a much older or even elderly man who can pay a very high price may be seen in her interest. Child marriage is valued as an economic coping strategy which reduces the costs of raising daughters. In this sense, poverty becomes a primary reason for child marriage because of perceived benefits to the family and the daughter. |Ethnicity/culture has emerged as the most complex reason for girls’ early | |marriages. In fact at some places like the Terai region in Nepal, where | |the cultural norms and practices are highly influenced by the culture of | |north India, it has emerged even stronger than the socio-economic | |factors.[16] It has been observed that ethnicity affects not only the age | |of marriage but the timing of family formation and entry into motherhood. | Marriage arrangements and requirements, such as dowry payments in parts of South Asia where parents of the young woman are obliged to give gifts to the spouse and his family, perpetuate child marriages. This is because the dowry requirement often increases with the age and the education level of the girl. Additionally, poor families tend to marry off girls at the same time to help reduce the burden of high marriage ceremony expenses[17]. However, child brides are often more likely to experience domestic violence and least likely to take action against this abuse. The majority of affected girls become condemned to a life of financial and social insecurity. This is a real paradox for many parents, given that they marry off their daughters at a young age in the belief that this will enhance the girl’s and the family’s security. Poverty ultimately fuels child marriage, which in turn perpetuates the feminization of poverty. In many villages that practice child marriage in Tamil Nadu State in India for example, girls are married off before they attain puberty because of the social stigma the community attaches to marriage after puberty. Many such marriages end in divorce. In case there is a large age’s difference, the girls become widows at a young age. Custom forbids divorced or widowed women to remarry, further impoverishing them. Entrenched community norms and myths clearly help to perpetuate the practice of child marriage and related poverty. Son preference is very strong in many communities in South Asia, which may not be unrelated to the expenses involved when marrying off a daughter. The rising costs of marriage ceremonies force many families to marry their daughters at the same time to reduce costs. Boys forced into marriage early may also suffer financially. Economic responsibilities can place heavy burdens on them and curtail their education sooner than they might want. However, while boys can leave their wives at their parents’ homes and seek employment opportunities elsewhere, this option is not available to the majority of young wives[18]. Marriage alliances and traditions Often marriage arrangements are made between families for dynastic, business, property or conflict resolutions. In Pakistan, India and Nepal, children may be betrothed or even married while toddlers or well below the age of 10. This custom is a means of consolidating powerful relations between families, making deals over land or other property, or settling disputes in the way routinely conducted between royal houses and aristocratic families throughout history. It may be a way of maintaining or fostering business ties with them. It may also be arranged as apart of the deal to settle a feud between two families.[19] Early marriage as a way to ensure the protection of girls Early marriage is also one way to ensure that a wife is â€Å"protected† or placed firmly under male control; that she is submissive to her husband and works hard for her in-laws’ household; that the children she bears are ‘legitimate’ and that bonds of affection between couples do not undermine the family unit.[20] It has been observed that in child marriages there is invariably a large gap between married women and their husbands—between 7-9 years.[21] The customary age difference helps to preserve the traditional cultural pattern of an older husband dominating a much younger wife. Social pressure appears to play a significant role in the girl getting married early. If girls remain unmarried by 15, neighbors, villagers and relatives begin to doubt her chastity and health. Parents are under huge pressure not to give a chance to the society to pass any aspersion on their girls. Early marriage is often a way of ensuring that the daughter is not at risk of losing her virginity in an irregular sexual encounter.[22] For many communities, the loss of virginity in girls before marriage is the worst shame that can be brought upon a family. The desire to protect a girl’s virginity drives many parents to force their daughters into marriage at an extremely young age. For this reason and to control girl’s sexuality, girls are married to prevent pre-marital sex or pregnancy. Once it is known in the village that a girl had pre-marital sexual relationship, it could be quite difficult to find a suitable boy who will be willing to marry her. Therefore parents willingly/unwillingly arrange early marriages to avoid such unpleasant situations. In rural communities, fetching water and firewood are usually chores undertaken by young girls. There is frequently a serious fear of their being raped.[23] The rape will be devastating with enormous implications for the girl. In many communities the rape is not considered to be a crime against a girl but against her father, husband, or brothers. Situations of insecurity and acute poverty, particularly during disasters such as war, famine or the HIV and AIDS epidemic, can prompt parents to resort to child marriage as a protective mechanism or survival strategy. Among some populations which have been disrupted by war (Afghanistan), marrying a young daughter to a warlord or someone who can look after her may be a strategy for physical security or family support. In the worst cases, girls are abducted or kidnapped by armed militia or rebels and forced into temporary marriages which amount to â€Å"a combination of child prostitution and pure slavery.† Displaced populations living in refugee camps may feel unable to protect their daughters from rape, and so marriage to a warlord or other authority figure may provide improved protection.[24] Consequences Of Early Marriage The consequences of child marriage are often far wider than just their impact on the individual children affected. The marriage of children has negative effects on families and communities. The practice thrives on poverty and impacts adversely on a country’s health and education sector. Young girls are forced to marry men they have never met before and who may be many years older than they are. Once married, they are responsible for looking after their husbands, the house, and the children they give birth to while still children themselves. This is one of the reasons that offspring born too early in their mothers’ lives are at increased risk of illness and death. These girls often have little knowledge about the responsibilities of being a wife and no information about sex and childbirth.[25] Early forced sex as a violation of rights where a girl is married has not been recognized as a form of sexual abuse except where warlords or traffickers have recruited girls as sexual slaves.[26] Early marriage is associated with a number of poor social and physical outcomes for young women and their offspring.[27] They attain lower schooling, lower social status in their husbands’ families, have less reproductive control, and suffer higher rates of maternal mortality and domestic violence. They are often forced out of school without an education, their health is affected because their bodies are too immature to give birth. |Child marriage impedes the Millennium Development Goals | |(agreed by governments and the international community in | |September 2000). | | | |Goal 1: Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger. | |Goal 2: Achieve universal primary education. | |Goal 3: Promote gender equality and empower women. | |Goal 4: Reduce child mortality. | |Goal 5: Improve maternal health. | |Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases. | Health and related outcomes The younger the boy or the girl is at the time of marriage, the worse is the abuse of child and human rights, both on grounds of lack of consent and on grounds of forced early sex. However, the implications for the females are much more severe. The younger the girl at the time of her first sexual relations – with early sex much more frequent and less likely to be consensual within marriage than outside marriage – the greater the chance of severe pain, physical damage, and of birthing complications and injury. Pregnancy and childbirth It is common sense to assume that girls who marry before 18 will usually have more children. Early child-bearing has long been seen as a risk to maternity, contributing significantly to large families. Since girls who are married young have a large number of child bearing years, they are more prone to miscarriage, infant death, malnutrition, cervical cancer, sterility, and maternal death. Even when girls are closer to the age of 18 but not yet that age, the risk remains. Girls between age 15 and 19 are twice as likely to die of pregnancy-related reasons as women between age 20 and 24. Child marriage is the leading cause of young women between the ages of 15 and 24 dying during pregnancy. Figure 4 Percentage of women age 15- 19 who have begun childbearing Selected countries in South Asia, 2004-2006 [pic] Not only the mothers but offspring born too early in their mothers’ lives are at increased risk of illness and death. The babies of child brides are sicker, weaker and many do not survive childhood. Evidence shows that infant mortality among children of very young mothers is almost two times higher than among those of older peers. The health problems linked to early marriage not only affect the pregnant mother but also continue after child birth. Complications are more likely during pregnancy and birth purely because of the mother’s young age. A large proportion of reproductive and sexual health concerns of adolescent girls and women root from early marriage and early pregnancy. In the context of reproductive health girl spouses face well-acknowledged risks. These include the problem of giving birth when the pelvis and birth canal are still under-developed which leads to an increased risk of complications during delivery including protracted labor.[28] Mothers aged less than 15 are especially vulnerable to fistulae – relentless pressure from baby’s skull can damage the birth canal causing breakages in the wall. A girl or a woman with this condition ─ irreversible without surgery ─ is not only in constant pain but will be socially ostracized and may well be divorced because of this.[29] The perils of child marriage are not limited to only health complications during pregnancy and delivery period but in many cases during post-natal period as well. Because of the prolapsed uterus, they suffer from backaches, experience difficulties while walking, working and sitting for a long time. At times they had to give birth even after prolapsed uterus and this made the situation worse for them. [30] Child brides cannot negotiate the terms of sex with husbands who are usually older and have had previous sexual partners.[31] They cannot insist on fidelity or condom use.[32] Research in India (Calcutta) revealed that almost half of the women patients in the hospital interviewed had been married at or below the age of 15 with the youngest being married at 7 years. This age group has one of the highest rates of vulnerability to sexual violence in marriage, second only to those whose dowry had not been paid. The women had forced sexual intercourse before menstruation had started. The sex was early and painful and many still continued to be forced into sexual activity by their husbands. Although young girls had made their husbands aware of their unwillingness to have sex or of pain during sex, in 80% of these cases, the rapes continued.[33] Increased risks of contracting sexually transmitted diseases and HIV Early marriage threatens girls’ health and the health of their children and thwarts efforts to combat HIV/AIDS. Of substantial consequences, yet largely ignored, is the fact that the majority of the sexually active girls aged 15-19 in South Asia are married and these adolescent girls tend to have higher rates of HIV infection than their sexually active unmarried peers. Early sexual activity within marriage is even more likely to expose young people to sexually transmitted infections than sex outside marriage.[34] Crossing the threshold into marriage greatly intensifies sexual exposure via unprotected sex, often with an older partner, who by virtue of his age has an elevated risk of being HIV positive. This dramatic rise in the frequency of unprotected sex is driven by not only the implication of infidelity or distrust associated with certain forms of contraception such as condoms, but often also by a strong desire to become pregnant. Demographic and health survey data reveals that on an average 80% of unprotected sex encounters among adolescent girls occurred within marriage. Not only are married adolescents girls often isolated within their new households and from external public and private support but their needs have not been prioritized or sometimes even considered in current reproductive health initiatives. Moreover many of the most common HIV/AIDS policies and messages are not appropriate for them.[35] Denial of education It is believed that investment in a girl’s education is wasted when she simply going to be married and work in another household.[36] Girls reported that even if married girls are allowed to pursue their education, they cannot continue for too long because of the varied burdens imposed on her by early childbearing and the chores in the house. An important reason why girls in South Asia do not go to school or are withdrawn at puberty is for the assumption of domestic duties and confinement at home as prelude to marriage. Lack of exposure outside the immediate home environment means lower self-esteem, less sense of identity as an independent person with an independent mind, reduced socialization with peers and non-family adults, and considerably less knowledge of what early marriage entails.[37] There is a clear connection between early marriage and low educational attainment. Early marriage puts the young girl at a disadvantage by the loss of educational opportunity. Often girls are not allowed to go to school which diminishes her opportunity to acquire critical life skills. Children benefit as much as their families, since a school-going child has been observed to be an agent of change in rural societies.[38] A girl who is educated will most likely educate her daughter and thus establishes an inter-generational trend of educating girls. Besides, the correlation between the number of years of a girl’s schooling and the postponement of marriage is shown to be firmly established by demographic and fertility studies36. A one year postponement of marriage increases schooling by 0.32 years and literacy by 5-10%.[39]